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Study Of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

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Discuss about the Study of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors.



Organizational Citizenship Behavior (O.C.B) can be said as a new concept regarding analyzing the performance of the workforce, but it also represents a traditional human conduct of voluntary action along with the mutual aid having no request to pay in return (Begum, Zehou & Sarker, 2014). This unique idea was initially introduced in the 80s of the last century by Dennis Organ. This theory has rapidly expanded during the next few years. As stated in the writings of Agarwal (2016) O.C.B is a type of individual behavior that can be said discretionary and not at all explicitly recognized by any type of formal system of rewarding (Naeem, Malik & Bano, 2014). Along with that, O.C.B promotes the effective functioning of the organization. Organ also stressed on the fact that to define O.C.B as a behavior which is not at all formally rewarded must be equally broad, because only a few in-role behaviors can guarantee a reward that is formal This literature review consists of the various factors, significances, consequences and various dimensions of Organizational Citizenship Behavior.

The business organizations, who have continued to be successful, need workers who would get engaged more in completing their allocated tasks and take more responsibilities and perform above the expectations of the management. The O.C.B explains the actions following which the workforce is willing to go beyond their roles that are needed. This theory suggests that these types of behaviors are interrelated with various indicators of the effectiveness of the organizations (Firouzi, Harati & Shahraki, 2014).

There are at least 30 different types of organizational citizenship behavior that ycan be arranged into seven groups by organizational loyalty, helping behavior, sportsmanship, individual initiative, self development, organizational compliance and civic virtue. Particularly, helping behavior is a type of OCB where the individuals help other people with their work and fight possible oddities. After that sportsmanship can be defined as a type of behavior that includes sacrificing for team work and motivating other members of the team when needed. Organizational loyalty can be seen as a protection system for the interests of the organization as being loyal towards it, but there are not many experts who consider it to be a part of the O.C.B. Organizational Compliance is the compliance with the rules of the organizations and the procedures in general (Begum, Zehou & Sarker, 2014).  Individual initiative can be considered as a extra-role activity that involves getting engaged in the behaviors related to the tasks but it is not at all clear whether it is a type of OCB or not. Civic virtue helps identifying the individuals of an organization as a whole and protects the interests of the corporation in every aspect. Lastly, the self development is the sense that means developing the own self and in this way the employees contribute to the interests of their organization (Naeem, Malik & Bano, 2014). There is another theory where altruism, courtesy, sportsmanship, conscientiousness and civil virtue are included under the dimensions of OCB.

Dimensions of OCB




Helping coworkers when needed.


Being ready to help others.


Helping others being busy.


Being cooperative towards new employees.


Keeping the organization clean.


Utilization of the resources of the organization.


Attending the non compulsory meeting after work.


Adhering to the organizational regulations.


Understanding the problems of others.


Releasing the stress of the coworkers.


Getting uniform results towards the organization.


Showing responsible attitudes.


Being friendly and lively towards the attitudes towards the corporation.


Being updated with the performance of the workers.


Utilizing the excess time by increasing knowledge.


Following the company’s procedure of working.


Appreciating constructive ideas of subordinate people.


Helping other colleagues in critical situations.


Acting proactively.


Being faithful towards the organization.


A sense of belongingness


Working more than the expectation of the organization.

Civic virtue

Team work is one of the most important aspects.


Encouraging peersto follow the policies of the organization

Extra role behavior

Keeping the personal and professional issues differently.


Remaining committed towards the company.


Being committed towards the company.

Figure Dimensions of OCB

Source: as created by author

Consequences of OCB

Various OCB behaviors can have numerous consequence regarding the effectiveness of the organization, and for an example, it can be said that, helping others can surely improve the productivity and the moral of the workforce (Firouzi, Harati & Shahraki, 2014). There is a constant need of expanding the knowledge regarding OCB by investigating how work performance gets influenced by OCB, whether there is a direct connection or indirect and whether its effects are immediate or takes time (Naeem, Malik & Bano, 2014). Whenever the managers evaluate the performance of the workforce they engage OCB, but a question lies there and that is whether all the aspects of OCB are effective or not in certain situations (Azeem & Akhtar, 2014).


The workforce and the clients are the major 2 aspects of any kind of business organization and thus the job satisfaction of the workers can allow the organization to satisfy their clients and also to increase the profitability of the corporation. It can be said that the job satisfaction of the workforce within the workplace under a proper business environment to attain the targets of the company (Naeem, Malik & Bano, 2014). Extrinsic and Intrinsic are the two major factors of OCB, and that allows the corporation to motivate their employees along with satisfying them in their current workplace. It has been seen that the motivation and satisfaction level of the workers are the chief terms of generating the uniform productivity of the organization. Experts opined that various dimensions of OCB are the most effective methodology of the satisfied individuals in their workplace, and thus it can surely be said that OCB is the main aspects of the employment and satisfying the employees in their workplace. To evaluate the effectiveness of OCB, a quantitative data analysis can be done for this particular paper (Yao & Fan, 2015). A questionnaire can be provided to hundreds of employees in the various regions of the land and they were asked whether OCB is effective or not and in most cases the responses were positive. In this process realizing the importance of the dimensions or the effectiveness of the dimensions cannot be evaluated properly as evaluation of these complicated theories cannot be evaluated by the answers of some employees while interviewing them (Azeem & Akhtar, 2014).

OCB can be referred to as a set of discretionary behaviors of workplace that might exceed individual’s basic requirements of job (Shaheen, Bukhari & Adil, 2016). Various research works regarding OCB focused on the effects of OCB on the organizational and individual performance. Examples of these types of behaviors like understanding the cooperation with the co-workers, mentoring and performing extra duties regardless of delays and punctuality and compliant usage of organizational resources and sharing ideas and positively representing the company (Rajiani, 2013). Some experts said that altruism and general compliance grouped the OCB dimensions as non-visual and the virtual factors like sportsmanship and civic virtue. It is widely believed that citizenship behaviors within the organizations have three chief categories, such as: Organizational obedience, participation and loyalty (Azeem & Akhtar, 2014). Recently, OCB has been conceptualized as likewise with the concept of contextual performance that can be defined as performance that can support the social along with the psychological environment in which the performance of task takes place. When this aspect reflects the lithe nature of the role of the workers within a modernized workplace, and also acknowledges the fact regarding the employees would get recognized and rewarded for getting engaged in OCB (Naeem, Malik & Bano, 2014). The idiomatic understanding of OCB of ‘above and beyond’ would help other individuals at workplace is an idea that is familiar to many people and these notions would continue to be a very popular method of conceptualizing OCB. 


Thus to conclude, it can be said that, OCB is one of the most important aspects of business organization to get successful commercially. Business organizations require employees who would do certain things who would voluntarily do things which are not in their job description and the proofs highlights that these types of organizations who have employees like this surely climbs up the ladder of success sooner than any other organization. OCB have been conceptualized as a desirable set of behaviors in the society and numerous motives has to be present as the reason behind the employees showing OCB within their workplace. It is widely believed that OCB exhibits a ‘Good Soldier Syndrome’ that is essential for a business organization to grow further. To summarize the paper it can be said that OCB is a type of discretionary behavior that is surely not a part of the job description of an employee, but it promotes the functioning of the organization effectively. To reach the targets of the company and to make the most out of the general workforce the management of the business organizations must understand the importance of the OCB within the workplace.


References and bibliography

Agarwal, S. (2016). Organizational Citizenship behavior: A Comparative Study Between Public and Private Sector Bank. International Journal of Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Sciences, 4(5), 161-167.


Azmi, F. T., Desai, K., & Jayakrishnan, K. (2016). Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB): A comprehensive literature review. Sumedha Journal of Management, 5(1), 102.

Begum, S., Zehou, S., & Sarker, M. A. H. (2014). Investigating the relationship between recruitment & selection practice and OCB dimensions of commercial banks in China. International Journal of Academic Research in Management, 3(2), 146-154.

Firouzi, M., Harati, H., & Shahraki, R. (2014). Probing the effect of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) on Social Capital (SC). International Journal of Advanced Research in Science and Technology, 3(3), 136-139.

Naeem, B., Malik, M. E., & Bano, N. (2014). NURTURING ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOURS BY OPTIMISM SUBCULTURE: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 52(2), 175.

Qureshi, H. (2015). A Study of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB) and its Antecedents in an Indian Police Agency. University of Cincinnati.

Rajiani, I. (2013). Promoting organizational citizenship behavior among employees-the role of leadership practices. International Journal of Business and Management;, 8(6), 47-54.

Shaheen, S., Bukhari, I., & Adil, A. (2016). Moderating role of psychological capital between perceived organizational support and organizational citizenship behavior and its dimensions. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, 5, 41-50.

Tambe, S. (2014). A study of organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and its dimensions: a literature review.

Yao, J., & Fan, L. (2015). The Performance of Knowledge Workers Based on Behavioral Perspective. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 3(01), 21.


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