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1. Survey and discuss in depth the strengths and weaknesses?

2. Action research and discuss in depth the strengths and weaknesses?

3. Case study and discuss in depth the strengths and weaknesses?

4. Ethnography, and discuss in depth the strengths and weaknesses?

5. Grounded theory, and discuss in depth the strengths and weaknesses?

6. Experimentation, and discuss in depth the strengths and weaknesses?

7. Quantitative methods, and discuss in depth the strengths and weaknesses?

8. Qualitative methods and discuss in depth the strengths and weaknesses?

9. Mixed methods research and discuss in depth the strengths and weaknesses?


Research Methods and Strategies


A survey is an introduction or discussion in brief done with the others about any topic. It is vague at sometimes so we require defining it clearly. It is use to collect the information example: a researcher of some magazine studio needs to do the survey so what comes in the mind that he needs to collect the information from the society regarding something. It initially states the brief interview of individuals and later comes in mind about collecting information. It helps in doing the research that helps in making the strategies. In an interview, survey involves a quick interview consisting few rapid questions (Dillman, Don, 2000).


It represents a large number of population

Involves low costs

Data gather easily

Data with high reliability

Accurate Results


Inflexibility in process of data

Controversial issues

Questions inappropriate

Action Research

It can be undertaken by all individuals in their lives for bringing the change in the world. The researcher develops knowledge for the research. It is not simply use in handling and solving the problems but sometimes uses for discovering the action research around the truth for expecting desirable changes. Action researchers follow wisdom in both the academia and among the development practitioners and social change engaging those who intervene or enquiring co-researchers (Reason & Bradbury, 2006).   


Focused on problem specifically

Cyclic process involves evaluation

Involvement of intervention

Future oriented


Time consuming

Difficult Research

Careful in approaching methods

Limitations of the research while present the findings(McDonnell ,2001)

Case study

It is the method of research done in the depth and examining the study in the detail as well as its related conditions. It has a prominent place in various professions, political science to education, social work etc. The ‘case’ being studied may be an event, individual or action in particular time and place.  Case study is the analysis of decisions; events, institutions etc are studied by one and more method (Garvin, 2003).


Useful for studying abnormal behavior

Depth investigation

Increases academic knowledge


Samples for study are limited

Vast data collected for opening more opportunities for researcher bias (Flyvbjerg, 2006)

Misinterpret data misread by researcher


It is the study of the culture and the people. It is use to explore knowledge about the phenomena of culture through which researcher observes the society from the point of view of the subject of the study. It is the process of making the study of a human society and involves field observation with qualitative analysis(Boyle, 2002).


Research based on different sources of information

Involved first hand observation

Findings in depth

Explore new inquiry


It takes much time in getting reliable results
Research based on few people observation
Alteration done in the feelings by observer’s cultural bias
Grounded Theory

It is a qualitative research method use by the researchers while doing research. The main aim of this method is to generate theory that describes the working of the social world. The aim starts and get connect with the reality to develop the theory. It helps in comparison the data with an emergence of categories (Bryant, Antony/Charmaz, Kathy ,2007).


- Good quality of emergence theory

- Effective approach for understanding new phenomena

- Findings are refined

- Wide opening the mind of researchers through many lenses to look at the data


Large volume of data

Time consuming

Chaos in the data

Difficult to practice the developed theory

Highly experienced people require


Experiments give birth to the causes and the effects and they get differ from non- experimentation methods. It involves the manipulation of one variable deliberately and trying to keep the other variables constant. Sometimes independent variable acts as a thought like a cause and the dependent variable acts as the effect.


- Experiments can be replicated

- Precise control of variables

- Analysis of quantitative data by using statistical tests

- Experimenters have full control over the variables


-  Behavior is narrow in the laboratory

- Artificiality

Demand characteristics act as a difficult for doing experiments

Quantitative methods

It is in the numerical form such as percentages, statistics etc. In this, a researcher asks for a narrow and specific question with the collection of  sample of numerical data with the phenomena of doing observation (Bradbury, 2007).


Useful for obtaining data

Provides numerical data

Less time consuming in analysis the data

Results of the research are independent

Useful for studying the large amount of people


Researcher might miss the occur phenomena

Knowledge might be too abstract

Might not reflect the local understandings

Qualitative Methods

It is the primary research for exploration and use to make understandings of underlying different opinions, reasons and motivations. It helps in developing the hypotheses for the qualitative research (Bradbury, 2007).


No examination of issues in depth

No restriction in interviews

Quickly revise the directions

Data based on experiences of humans


Difficult to maintain

Issues face in maintaining the confidentiality

Difficult finding

Heavily depend on individual skills

Mixed methods research

It is the procedure for collecting the qualitative and quantitative data, analyze them for doing research and use in a single study to solve the issues of the study(Hesse-Biber, 2010.).


Research produces the complete knowledge

Researcher can test the grounded theory

Numbers can use the precision of pictures and words


Very expensive
Time consuming
Difficult for the single researcher(Greene, 2007)



Boyle. JS, 2002. “Styles of Ethnography”, in Critical Issues in Qualitative Research. California. Sage Publications Inc.

Bradbury. H, 2007. “Quality and actionability: What action researchers offer from the tradition of pragmatism”. In A. B. (Rami) Shani, S.A. Mohrman, W. Pasmore, B. Stymne, & N. Adler (Eds.). Handbook of Collaborative Management Research. pp. 583–600. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Bryant, Antony/Charmaz, Kathy ,2007. “ The SAGE Handbook of Grounded Theory”. London: SAGE.

Creswell . J, 2012. “Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research”(4thed.). Upper Saddle River. NJ: Pearson Education.

Dillman, Don .A, 2000. “Mail and internet surveys: the tailored design method”. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley

Flyvbjerg. B, 2006. "Five Misunderstandings about Case-Study Research". Qualitative Inquiry 12 (2): 219–245. doi:10.1177/1077800405284363.

Garvin.DA, 2003 . “Making the Case: Professional Education for the World of Practice”. Harvard Magazine. 106, 1, 56-107

Greene. J C, 2007.” Mixed methods in social inquiry”. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons

Hesse-Biber. SN, 2010. “Mixed methods research: merging theory with practice”. New York: Guilford.

McDonnell .A ,2001. “Factors which may inhibit the utilisation of research findings in practice: some solutions”. In Crookes P. Davies S (Eds) Research into Practice. Edinburgh. Baillière Tindall

Reason. P & Bradbury. H, 2006. “The handbook of action research: Concise paperback edition”. London: Sage.

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