A survey is an introduction or discussion in brief done with the others about any topic. It is vague at sometimes so we require defining it clearly. It is use to collect the information example: a researcher of some magazine studio needs to do the survey so what comes in the mind that he needs to collect the information from the society regarding something. It initially states the brief interview of individuals and later comes in mind about collecting information. It helps in doing the research that helps in making the strategies. In an interview, survey involves a quick interview consisting few rapid questions (Dillman, Don, 2000).
It represents a large number of population
Involves low costs
Data gather easily
Data with high reliability
Inflexibility in process of data
It can be undertaken by all individuals in their lives for bringing the change in the world. The researcher develops knowledge for the research. It is not simply use in handling and solving the problems but sometimes uses for discovering the action research around the truth for expecting desirable changes. Action researchers follow wisdom in both the academia and among the development practitioners and social change engaging those who intervene or enquiring co-researchers (Reason & Bradbury, 2006).
Focused on problem specifically
Cyclic process involves evaluation
Involvement of intervention
Careful in approaching methods
Limitations of the research while present the findings(McDonnell ,2001)
It is the method of research done in the depth and examining the study in the detail as well as its related conditions. It has a prominent place in various professions, political science to education, social work etc. The ‘case’ being studied may be an event, individual or action in particular time and place. Case study is the analysis of decisions; events, institutions etc are studied by one and more method (Garvin, 2003).
Useful for studying abnormal behavior
Increases academic knowledge
Samples for study are limited
Vast data collected for opening more opportunities for researcher bias (Flyvbjerg, 2006)
Misinterpret data misread by researcher
It is the study of the culture and the people. It is use to explore knowledge about the phenomena of culture through which researcher observes the society from the point of view of the subject of the study. It is the process of making the study of a human society and involves field observation with qualitative analysis(Boyle, 2002).
Research based on different sources of information
Involved first hand observation
Findings in depth
Explore new inquiry
It is a qualitative research method use by the researchers while doing research. The main aim of this method is to generate theory that describes the working of the social world. The aim starts and get connect with the reality to develop the theory. It helps in comparison the data with an emergence of categories (Bryant, Antony/Charmaz, Kathy ,2007).
- Good quality of emergence theory
- Effective approach for understanding new phenomena
- Findings are refined
- Wide opening the mind of researchers through many lenses to look at the data
Large volume of data
Chaos in the data
Difficult to practice the developed theory
Highly experienced people require
Experiments give birth to the causes and the effects and they get differ from non- experimentation methods. It involves the manipulation of one variable deliberately and trying to keep the other variables constant. Sometimes independent variable acts as a thought like a cause and the dependent variable acts as the effect.
- Experiments can be replicated
- Precise control of variables
- Analysis of quantitative data by using statistical tests
- Experimenters have full control over the variables
- Behavior is narrow in the laboratory
Demand characteristics act as a difficult for doing experiments
It is in the numerical form such as percentages, statistics etc. In this, a researcher asks for a narrow and specific question with the collection of sample of numerical data with the phenomena of doing observation (Bradbury, 2007).
Useful for obtaining data
Provides numerical data
Less time consuming in analysis the data
Results of the research are independent
Useful for studying the large amount of people
Researcher might miss the occur phenomena
Knowledge might be too abstract
Might not reflect the local understandings
It is the primary research for exploration and use to make understandings of underlying different opinions, reasons and motivations. It helps in developing the hypotheses for the qualitative research (Bradbury, 2007).
No examination of issues in depth
No restriction in interviews
Quickly revise the directions
Data based on experiences of humans
Difficult to maintain
Issues face in maintaining the confidentiality
Heavily depend on individual skills
Mixed methods research
It is the procedure for collecting the qualitative and quantitative data, analyze them for doing research and use in a single study to solve the issues of the study(Hesse-Biber, 2010.).
Research produces the complete knowledge
Researcher can test the grounded theory
Numbers can use the precision of pictures and words
Boyle. JS, 2002. “Styles of Ethnography”, in Critical Issues in Qualitative Research. California. Sage Publications Inc.
Bradbury. H, 2007. “Quality and actionability: What action researchers offer from the tradition of pragmatism”. In A. B. (Rami) Shani, S.A. Mohrman, W. Pasmore, B. Stymne, & N. Adler (Eds.). Handbook of Collaborative Management Research. pp. 583–600. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bryant, Antony/Charmaz, Kathy ,2007. “ The SAGE Handbook of Grounded Theory”. London: SAGE.
Creswell . J, 2012. “Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research”(4thed.). Upper Saddle River. NJ: Pearson Education.
Dillman, Don .A, 2000. “Mail and internet surveys: the tailored design method”. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley
Flyvbjerg. B, 2006. "Five Misunderstandings about Case-Study Research". Qualitative Inquiry 12 (2): 219–245. doi:10.1177/1077800405284363.
Garvin.DA, 2003 . “Making the Case: Professional Education for the World of Practice”. Harvard Magazine. 106, 1, 56-107
Greene. J C, 2007.” Mixed methods in social inquiry”. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons
Hesse-Biber. SN, 2010. “Mixed methods research: merging theory with practice”. New York: Guilford.
McDonnell .A ,2001. “Factors which may inhibit the utilisation of research findings in practice: some solutions”. In Crookes P. Davies S (Eds) Research into Practice. Edinburgh. Baillière Tindall
Reason. P & Bradbury. H, 2006. “The handbook of action research: Concise paperback edition”. London: Sage.
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