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Subnet Level Network Topology Mapping

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In network communication, the protocol is defined as the rules by which two devices communicate over the given communication channel. All rules governing like syntax, communication initiation /Termination and packet size are all govern by the protocol itself. In case of any error the protocol must take care of the error and avoid the termination of the conversation.

A network analyzer analyzes the packets captured on the communication channel during the communication between the network devices. Network analyze could be a software or hardware or even combination of both. These types of devices help in analyzing the traffic over the network and helps in troubleshooting any situation that relates to the network communication. The network analyzer is not a tool that can replace the firewall or anti-virus but these tools can enhance the functionality of these tools providing the better security and avoiding the risk of any attacks.

A network hub is the device that is designed to connect the various devices to each other without understanding the data being communicated. When a hub receives the packet, it is transferred to all the connected devices to the hub. Switches on the other side are much more intelligent than hubs, the switches process and examine all the data communicated on the network and transferred it to the matching destination whose address matches the residing nodes. If the matching one is not found the packet is simply dropped from the network.

The current system is slow due to the fact it has connected the devices using the Hub, as the hub being the dumb device and its transmits all the data to all the nodes, it leads to the situation of collisions and congestions. This leads to delay in the overall network hence leading to the number of retransmission of data packets that would lead to slower network as same work is done using more packets and more time is consumed in communications. If we use the network analyzer we would then receive in the output log lot of ICMP and LLC packets, this shows the ping request and data packets being transmitted all over the place and network receiving all the data which is meant for the single machine. (Yih-Chun Hu, Johnson, & Perrig, n.d.)

The solution to the situation is to use the network switch for the communication that would greatly bring down the number of ICMP and LLC packets on the network. This would also mean lesser congestion on the network and lower the traffic and systems would start with better speeds and would take less time booting up.

In computer networks the path from one destination to other require the machines to follow certain algorithms for making the decisions. There are two major routing protocols for this:


These are two major classes of routing protocol in which Distance vector uses Bellman ford, Ford-Fulkerson Algorithms to calculate the optimal paths.

This routing protocol is quite simple protocol, it allows the routers to automate the process of packet delivery using the shortest path in order to reach the destination. The shortest path metric is cost that is associated with link. (Munaretto, Badis, Al Agha, & Pujolle, n.d.)

The protocol tracks the status of the connection with all the nodes and keep the track of speeds offered by the link. The status also includes if the link is up or not and how much time is needed for the packet to reach the required destination. Routers are needed to keep checking the paths and links in order to have updated routing information. This is why the link state is more complex hardware and have more overhead as compared to the Distance Vector. (Tao, Gao, Wang, Zhang, & Ma, 2016)

As in the figure 1 using the Distance Vector Routing the path that would be taken is A->B, whereas the Link state would take A->C->D->B that is 10 times faster than the Distance vector. If all the channels have same speed the Distance vector is preferred and if Link state is preferred in situation where speeds of links are different.   (Yih-Chun Hu, Johnson, & Perrig, n.d.)

Subnetting is the process in which the network is divided into smaller networks in order to manage the congestion and collisions in the network. The division is done over the layer 3 of the OSI model of IP address. Current subnet is to have at least 6 networks with 1024 nodes each using the IP address Current requirements are as follows: (Manaf, & Bataona, 2014) (Tozal, & Sarac, 2011)

  • Building A - 200 workstations
  • Building B - 125 workstations
  • Building C - 135 workstations
  • Building D - 122 workstations
  • Building E - 312 workstations
  • Building F - 105 workstations

With the given input the network would be subnetted using the subnet mask of or “/11” that would provide 2097152 number of IP address each subnet. The List of networks is:

The technology in network is more concerned in order to get the throughput and pumping of the data to the nodes regardless of how the data is being communicated in the network. In such situations, many packets might be even stored in buffered or dropped if the situation arise of overflow situation. The applications such as RTMP the situation is not at all idea hence the in order to have the optimal data transfer with constant bandwidth the protocol needs to have the feature known as “Quality of Service” known as QoS.

  • Bandwidth Reservation: The Bandwidth is reserved for the certain period of time and it is generally being followed in multimedia based applications, also known as resource reservation. (Yuanmin Chen, Xiaodong Li, & Wei Mao, 2008)
  • Latency Management: Limit the delay between the two nodes.
  • Traffic Prioritization: priority to the packet of certain type or protocol.
  • Traffic Shaping: buffer and limits the packets to a predefined limit of the network
  • Network Congestion Avoidance: monitor packets and routing information so that to use the lesser congestion.

TOS (type of service) a field used in the IPv4 based header for many purposes on the network such as priority queue management, lower the delay using the routes having the high throughput and much reliable services. (Yuanmin Chen, Xiaodong Li, & Wei Mao, 2008)



Manaf, A., & Bataona, D. (2014). Analysis and design of subnetting methods: Hybrid fixed length subnet masking (HFLSM). 2014 International Conference On Electrical Engineering And Computer Science (ICEECS).

Munaretto, A., Badis, H., Al Agha, K., & Pujolle, G. A link-state QoS routing protocol for ad hoc networks. 4Th International Workshop On Mobile And Wireless Communications Network.

Tao, J., Gao, X., Wang, B., Zhang, X., & Ma, S. (2016). Multi-path based link-state routing mechanism. 2016 18Th International Conference On Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT).

Tozal, M., & Sarac, K. (2011). Subnet level network topology mapping. 30Th IEEE International Performance Computing And Communications Conference.

Yih-Chun Hu, Johnson, D., & Perrig, A. SEAD: secure efficient distance vector routing for mobile wireless ad hoc networks. Proceedings Fourth IEEE Workshop On Mobile Computing Systems And Applications.

Yuanmin Chen, Xiaodong Li, & Wei Mao. (2008). SIP peering based on distance vector algorithm. 2008 11Th IEEE International Conference On Communication Technology.


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