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Support For Health And Disease In Communities Add in library

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LO 1. Understand different approaches and strategies used to measure, monitor and control the incidence of disease in communities



1.1. Explain the roles of different agencies in identifying levels of health and disease in communities

Health restoration and health management are two crucial concepts, which decides the healthy state of any community. With respect to the diverse habitat of human being, the spread of population is vast throughout the globe, which fetch diversity in food, life style, culture and other specific traits. Likewise, the variation in health state of the diverse people is different, where at one place is affected with tropical neglected disease and at another part it is affected by the poverty state. It is hence, the placement of various agencies in each nation, in each state, in each district and each location is important. The functionality of these agencies, lies in context of understanding the health issues with in the locality, find suitable causes behind it, collect data relative to prevalence, occurrence and pandemic state, share the health concern with the agencies at higher level, and thereby translate the knowledge related to health issues and subsequent solution (WHO, 1980). In other words, it can be said that the functionality of various agencies lies in context to build partnership model with the community member, with government and non-government agencies, with international agencies for the wellbeing of the community and sustaining the prosperity of healthy state.

The role of various agencies in concern to health and disease also lies with respect to the governing the establishment of health and social care settings, their functioning roles, the competency of health care professionals by regulating their education system, training module, criteria for licensing and monitoring the workflow. On local, national and international level, these agencies are responsible for framing effective guidelines for the health restoration as well as management with the help of public policies, ethical cum legislative framework and making various amendments for the wellbeing of the society. Similar is the monitoring of the expenditure in terms of health management issues with respect to per capita income and GDP of the nation. Thus, the focus is related to meet the challenge of health gap for any community with respect to the corresponding health expectancies (Brandt & Rozin, 2013).



1.2. Explain, using statistical data, the epidemiology of one infectious and one non-infectious disease that is widespread in their own country

With respect to the discussion theme, it would be more suitable to focus on any agency that is functional on the worldwide scale. In conjunction to the said concept, World health Organization (WHO) is more suitable compared for the concern of discussion of health and disease issue. Likewise, it is important to note that the epidemiological concern, prevalence and occurrence and the corresponding statistical cum quantitative term is more important in context to global burden of disease (GBD) concept (John, 2011, pp.252).

With respect to the health and disease concern, the concept of DALY (a summative measure of population health) is more suitable which in numerical or statistical term is represented as summation of YLL and YLD (Equation 1).

                                                                                     Equation 1

Where YLL is years of life lost due to premature mortality and YLD is years lived with disability.

This mortality at premature state or disability state, where the physiological conditions and corresponding state of mind is not in good state can be correlated with respect to infection and non-infection state. Notably the statistical terms for the same concern is always derived by classifying the data in terms of age, sex and geographical region. The key estimate of the health and disease issues are used to estimate routinely with respect to the incidences and point prevalence of the disease. These studies are carried out with respect to infection diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis and other related infection. Similarly, in case of non-infection diseases that same concern is expressed with respect to Alzheimer disease, Astham, Diabetes mellitus, Parkinson disease, heart failure, cancer and related disorder. In brief the statistical assumption of the disability states with respect to diseases is calculated by equation 1::

                                                                                     Equation 2

Where I is number of incident cases, DW is the disability weight and L is the average duration of disability in years. It is noteworthy to mention that the application of equation 2 is executed without taking into the consideration of social preference or cultural attributes, and fetch the significance of prevalence and occurrence with respect to disabling event (Pullan, 2012, pp.1870).



1.3. Evaluate the effectiveness of different approaches and strategies to control the incidence of disease in communities

The prime notation in conjunction to various approach and strategies for the control of any incidence and disease in a community is based on the assessment and identification of associated links. It is hence the identification of specific traits, its occurrence, the possible cause and the implementation measures are important in this regard. Apart from the basic requirement of infrastructure, facility and workforce in terms of health care professionals, for any region, it is also important to understand the specific traits existing in the location. These traits are related to the social and cultural influences, the religious believe and the environment associated within it. Thus, for the purpose of effective health restoration, it is important for the policy maker, for the health care professionals and the community individual itself to take care of these issues. The next approach is the understanding and acquiring of the knowledge related to diverse health concerns that are incorporated in the health pattern of any community. The estimates of these health patterns in general are derived by the agencies responsible for the same. Example of the functioning mechanism was explained in above section like DALY (Patel, 2011, pp.413).

An effective strategy is concerned with the competency of the concerned health care professionals. This ensure that the adoption of the intervention method and the treatment regime is suitable for the concerned health issues. In particular the strategies adopted for the health restoration and health management lies in five crucial steps. (i) assessment and identification of the associated risk and concerned risk; (ii) planning the treatment regime and effective management for the concerned problem, (iii) identification of any crucial change and implementation for making the health restoration process effective (iv) monitoring the progress of the implemented approach and (v) sustaining the effective measure by educating and concerned on the self-management of the disease. Notably, with the adopted for the said points, it is equally important to take care of the ethical and legislative concerned imposed by the guidelines and regulatory framework by the local, national and international agencies. Adopted of such concern in practice will ensure minimum enclose for risk and also ensure maximum positive benefit against the adopted strategy (Di Cesare, 2013, pp.585).


LO 2. Be able to investigate the implications of illness and disease in communities for the provision of health and social care services



2.1 Use relevant research to determine current priorities and approaches to the provision of services for people with disease or illness

Current policy priority matters and assessment for the health needs are important tool for the identification, recognition and making appropriate planning of health care to meet the demands and convey the necessary implementation. These approaches not only ensure the wellbeing of the society but also work for the sustainability of the health care standards in the community. The essential tool in this regard is the building and maintenance of effective partnership model among the various health care professionals as well as in conjunction to the concerned community members.

They points to be considered in this context of epidemiology and defining the health service needs are related to following assumptions (Maher, 2012, pp.1):

  • Understand the need, demands and corresponding use of the requisite planning and services.
  • Defining the assessment and requisite needs for the health concern of the community.
  • Identification and implementation of appropriate approaches for the assessment of health needs.
  • Framing an effective framework for the health need assessment.

Professional judgment, recognition and realization of the need and comparative assessment in this conjunction is valuable and worthy. These approach are helpful for analysis of both the clinical activities and associated cost benefit analysis. Other factors which are involved in this concern are related to illness behavior in the community with respect to age, gender, socio-economic class and education. The illustration of the concerned approach and strategy for health and social care is thus framed on the basis of statistical factors, demand factor of health care services and supply factors for the requisite service and care plan. It is noteworthy to mention that the service related activities and utilization are crucial for the framing and implementation of the strategies. These utilization are decided on the basis of either (i) service based utilization, for example the bed occupancy, number of available health care professionals per bed and (ii) population based activity such as immunization coverage and prescription. The reflection of the effectiveness in strategies can be obtained with inverse law, where the increase in effective of services will leads to reduction in the hospital admission and mortality cum morbidity rate (Atrash & Carpenter, 2012, PP.396).


2.2 Explain the relationship between the prevalence of disease and requirements of services to support individuals within the health and social care service provision

According to the definition of WHO, health can be defined as a complete state of physical, mental and social wellbeing. It is hence the absence of diseases or disorders does not confirm the healthy state of individual. The relationship between the prevalence of disease and the corresponding requirement of the services can be summaries in following points, viz (Maron, 2014, pp.1303; Haas, 2013, ppS100):

  • Identification of the public interest, which depicts not only the requisite parameters for the wellbeing state of health, but is also related to identification and assessment of the health concern related to any outburst of infection or disorder.
  • Assessing the health priorities, which involve collection of both qualitative and quantitative data. These data on the other hand reflect the extent of the need for health related services. Notably the availability of the information and skills in the health care professionals are also included in this context.
  • Identification of issues that is most important in comparison to all the existing priorities for action. The factors, which are helpful in this regard, are size and severity of the health concern, availability of the services, efficiency and effectiveness of the services and partnership arrangement.
  • Implementation and monitoring of the change program in the community. This helps in ensuring that the measures adopted are effective and are potent enough to produce positive results.

The concept of health economics is important to understand and make into existence in the real life scenario. It is the government agencies, which are responsible for the incorporation and application of revenue for the services in the community health needs. These strategies include the investment of capital in terms of per capita income and per GDP. The efforts of this kind helps in managing the number of beds in the community and the corresponding workforce required per bed to meet the diverse health and social care related needs.


2.3 Analyze the impact of current lifestyle choices on future needs for health and social care services

The current life style choice seeks for more comfort and less activity in developed and developing countries. These lead to state of increase in cases for obesity, diabetes, congestive heart failure and other related disorders. Likewise, in underdeveloped countries and tropical states the concern is mainly focused on parasitic diseases such as Leishmania, tse-tse fly, malaria, cholera and tuberculosis. It is hence, when the overall scenario of the world health prospect is visualized, there are diverse problems and concerns, which are acting as barrier for the wellbeing of the society (Marmot, 2012, pp.1011).

The effectiveness in the measure can be increased with increased sharing of the knowledge, emphasizing over the health issues and physiological need. The generalized need of the awareness are with respect to food and diet precautions, avoidance of the addictive elements such as alcohol, nicotine and cocaine. Other education and awareness are in conjunction to health aspects of women and children, safe sex, education, hygiene and cleanliness. These measures will help in better generalization related to health restoration and health management.

Looking on to the other part of development, related to the advancement of science and technology and the advancement in medical science, there are improvement and amendment in the ethical and legislative concerns. Similarly, with time there is an increased development of nursing theories, increased adopted of borrowed theories for the nursing and related health care practices. Increase in the concern of training and education is helpful in this regard, as it works for acquisition of better competency level of the health care practitioners. The raised concern of both government and non-government agencies have opened wide option of similar medical facilities irrespective of the geographical location (rural and urban), more practical usage of telenursing, increase in video consulting among the health care professionals. All these measures are ultimately running with single objective, that is the improvement of patient outcome (Blank, 2013).


LO 3. Understand the factors influencing health and wellbeing of individuals in health or social care settings

3.1 Assess the health and wellbeing priorities for individuals in a particular health or social care setting

Health inequality is the basic concern for the assess of the services and care in any health care settings. Public priorities and practice guidelines by the health care settings, should have the approach for explicit addressing of the inequalities in all the department and level. Often these inequalities were developed with respect to the socioeconomic class, cultural, ethnical and language, age, gender and other similar characteristics. The next factor, which can modulate the available health care services and the corresponding demand of the services are related to health promotion and prevention strategies (Kieling, 2011, pp.1515). The proverb prevention is better than cure, is applicable to many ill conditions such as infection, addiction and abuse. Increase in the investment for the health care services with respect to the instrument, medication, research and competencies of health care professionals should be accompanied with raising the awareness among the community members. This is possible with the help of displaying information on the websites, patient centered counseling and educating the family members and carer of the patient. Example of some specific areas, where the increase in awareness can be helpful are smoking, obesity, safe sex, breast feeding, physical activity, risky activities adopted by young, poverty and education.

To the next, the use of effective communication skills by the professionals is also crucial in addressing the health priorities issues and related services in any health care settings. These skills are important in both verbal and non-verbal communication. Notably the use of effective communication skills is worthy among both multidisciplinary professionals as well as among the health care professionals and patients. Importantly, this also have another advantage of building effective partnership model for the facilitation of health care services in the community. translation of the health related information and implementing effective care plan are beneficial as a part of effective health restoration approach (Salomon, 2013, pp.2129).



3.2 Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies, systems and policies in a health or social care setting

The effectiveness of any strategy lies in context to change management and implementation of care plan. The strategies, systems and policies in the health and social care is always governed with in conjunction to the guidelines and policies. Some of the major work in this regard can be highlighted in the below mentioned rebuttal points (Grol, 2013):

  • Focus on the financial resources and availability of the revenue, that can be made into use for building and applicability of the health services.
  • Systematic involvement of the community members and experts from the field of health sector in designing and delivery of services.
  • Focusing on the partnership models among the various professionals of the health care settings, which will help in providing integrated services for the care system.

Apart from the said measures, other parameters, which are crucial for the evaluation of effectiveness can be made in concern of training and education. A fine concern of training and education system of health care, can be reflected with respect to the improved health condition of the community. For instance the reduction in mortality, morbidity and less occurrence of hospital readmission is the reflection of effective training and education. Concisely this also leads to increased patient satisfaction against the health care services (Schwarlander, 2011, pp.2031).


3.3 Discuss changes that could be made to improve the health and wellbeing of individuals in a health or social care setting

The changes can be made by ensuring that the related services are assessed in accordance to the needs and targets. Such approach will be helpful for fulfilling the existing gap between needs and available services. Demonstrating how health inequalities are made for compensating the designed services are also included within the same scope of improvement. Knowledge and adoption of appropriate competencies have the most positive impact over the better health prospect. It is noteworthy to mention that within the increase in globalization and mix cultural habitants, it is important for the health care professionals to pay attention towards diverse cultural and ethical difference. The improvement of the services should be concurrent according to the advance in science and technology. Reflection of the improvement in the health care services can be enhanced only with the health status of a healthy city (Marmot, 2012, pp.1011).

Risk identification and assessment of the health concerns in important for all the health care settings. Such approach not only reduces the probability of ills effects, but will also ensure that there are less errors in the health care practices. Record making and storage is also important aspect, which is needed to be in correct track for the sustainability of health care standards. This include important part such as safe recording, easy retrieval, and convenient sharing (Mechanic, 2012, pp.376).


3.4 Evaluate an activity that has been implemented to encourage behavior change for maximizing health for individuals in a health or social care setting

One of the main concerns in the health care settings is the management of change. The process is somewhat tricky as it involves a complicated process in which the health care professionals sometime support it, sometimes obligate to it, remain indifferent to it, and be passive or active to the changed scenario. In other words, it can be said that the management of any change within the health care settings involved several steps of evaluation, planning, implementation, strategies, guidelines and policies, which should ultimately focus on effective patient outcome (Klasnja, 2011, pp.3063). It would be genuine to argue that the change associated in a dynamic health care system is not only a choice in-between health care consumers demand and technological advancement, but is a combined solution of all the issues raised from combination of these two attributes.

The example of implementation for the scope of present discussion can be related to the food support program, made effective by WHO (Gordon, 2011, pp.359). The key effect can be observed with respect to improvement in maternal and perinatal outcomes. It is important to note that the significance of such work is related to low birth weight, pre-term birth and similar perinatal outcomes, which becomes favorable. Other than this, it also improves the ill health condition of the women such as gestational diabetes, depression and anemic conditions. In short, it can be said that the impact of such implementation was over the birth rate and health aspects of the mother.




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