Sustainability of economy involves ability of the current economic status to improve the livelihood of a place within a specific time and also its future development; sustainable development is the growth of a community or a country.
Tourism and hospitality has become a fast growing industry globally, it’s referred to as pure economics because it is also affected by changes in demand and supply factors (Spirou, 2010). Tourism has gained a lot of global market hence hospitality because of high demands from tourists.
Looking at the sustainable economies and development considering destinations cycle, you find that the reception of the investment in the area depends on its demand; if it is high the sustainability will also cater the current situation and also the coming generation (Mohammed & Sheriff, 2010). This reception depends also on the regulations in the country of investment, too much regulations and long procedures of legalization makes investors give up.
Countries with strict regulations and long legal procedures receive less investors in the country; this is because it is costly when the processes take longer time to be approved. In the present day life, tourism is basically graded as a consumer product in the normal interpretation which is deterrmined by market forces of demand and supply mechanisms. The various intermediaries of retail outlet helps in attaining the ever growing demand and supply in tourism sector (Maslow, 2013). Since the community in the tourism sector basic requirement such that domestic and international tourists are equally valued. It is no longer a luxury whick initially used to beleft to the rich merchants alone.tourism as a business enterprise has a number of aspects which impacted in the tourism industry proliferatio. These factors are among other leisure time availability that provide quality time for exploring new environments, increase in revenue of middle class individuals. Thre has been great development in terms of financial growth that has contributed to the high rise in tourism sector all over the globe. Therefore, the various theories of tourism relate closely to the practices that mainly relate to role, motivations and tourist experiences.
The main way to classify tourists could be based on the needs of the tourist. In this category, touriost fraternity therefore fall under two main categories. That is, tourists and travellers.
In the past, a lot of people would prefer their own means of transport for long distances. This could not fall under tourism since there was no tour guiding. Their main aim was to reach their destination without involving themselves in adventorous activities. This hindered the aspect of tourism since they could not explore important areas of entertainment. They would do all this movements and travelling for days without consultations. Typically, a tourist is an individual who travel or move from one environment to the next so as to satisfy their interests in adventure. These cohort of tourists mainly relie on tour guides and other agenmts so as to direct them to their best areas of interests (Maslow, 2011). These agents generate a lot of wealth as they direct the tourists on their way or on their trips. For instance, tourists would travel to gain certain skills and knowledge on their culture which actually lay a base of motivation to these tourists. Again, some analytical skills such as observation and interpretation can be attained.
There are a number ofgreat scolars who have emaciated great theories concerning tourism sector. These theories have been useful for tourism development and classification. For that matter, this particular aspect have greatly defined the major reason for their travel and adventure. Therefore, a tourist can be broadly defined as an explorer (Richard, 2013). There are other categories of tourists. They are commonly known as the elites and the other corresponding category is called offbeat tourists. These cohort is known to adventure with the major aim of attaining knowledge and getting away from increasing huge population commonly referred as the offbeat tourists. Tourists can again be classified on the basis od demand which apparently describe their main reason of adventure. This particular classification can be applied to greatly find out the tasks and as well determine the need of a particular group of tourists.
Again, there is yet another classification of tourist that is basedon the requirements of the tourists. This is used to satisfy their great desire for recreation and also for some experimental reasons (Marylene, 2014). In addition, another classification can also be based on motivation in which travelling help in prediction of what the consumer really require. A theory based on psychology of tourist was conducted to find out the tourist’s attitude towards travel and adventure.there is also a cohort of tourists who risk by searching for strange places of adventure. There is also another group of tourists who like places and areas of adventure they are already familiar with. They are broadly classified and termed as psycho-centric tourists. The undelying assumption to this is that different types of tourists basing on their interests prefer different places. Many trourists prefer going for holidays for a short distant places. Therefore, in most developed nations, these cohort is in great proximity to areas with high populations. This is where most tourist destinations are usually located. Mostly in the urban cities where we have urban tourism.
However, we find that recently many of the remote areas are acting as good tourist attraction centres and sites. This is because people in these areas are developing as well as developing trhese areas at a greater rate in comparison to areas with high populations. Another theory developed or initiarted by great scholar known as Erick Cohen suggested that there are several major tourists classifications (Rothfuss, 2008). There are those tourists who are known to adventure in large cohorts guided by a tour guide. Another cohort of tourist is that organized groups of tourists who are known to apply the same facilities used by the organized mass tourists. Nevertheless, this cohort of tourist makes their decisions based on their activities and other tasks related to their adventure. This cohort of tourist is known to live longer than all the other cohorts of tourists. The major idea depicted from the above is that, if a huge number of tourists prefer one area of adventure to the other area (Ryan & Deci, 2017). This would greatly cause hatred among the people in those areas affected by such underlying scenerio. In addition, if hatred seems to take the better part of the locals, then the number of tourists may reduce due to hostility from the two areas. This may reduce the rate of growth in those areas.
The other group tourists are the indiviual cohort mass tourists who apply similar facilities just like organized mass tourists, however, the main difference is based on decision making (Piasecki, 2009). This cohort makes many individual based decisions and judgement regarding their tasks and adventure. There are also the explorers and the drifters respectively. These explorers would oftenly plan their own travels, meet and interact with the area drifters so as to avoid all contact with many cohort of tourists and leave with the local tourists in their main area ofd adventure (Marylene, 2014). This category of tourists survive longer than the other groups whose life expectancy is lower.
This cohort of tourist is known to live longer than all the other cohorts of tourists. The major idea depicted from the above is that, if a huge number of tourists prefer one area of adventure to the other area. The various intermediaries of retail outlet helps in attaining the ever growing demand and supply in tourism sector (Latham, 2010). Since the community in the tourism sector basic requirement such that domestic and international tourists are equally valued. It is no longer a luxury whick initially used to beleft to the rich merchants alone.tourism as a business enterprise has a number of aspects which impacted in the tourism industry proliferation
Butler asserted a model whereby, a tourism destination grown over time as a result of many aspects. Destination is a crucial and essential aspect in tourism. A destination may be defined typically as a product and is marketed to its consumers. Just like all other goods and services, destinations for many tourists have a life steps and procedure that cycle around a given partern (Myerson, 2012). Butler suggested a model for tourism adventure life cycle that he demonstrated how a destination starts as a relatively unfamiliar place and visitors initially come in diminishing fractions because of in adequate access channels, facilities and local skill and underlying knowledge.
The main idea in Butler's model was that, proper remedial and planning of action by the tourists can assist in arresting the failure in resorts and tourism infrastructure.
One of the main bottleneck which the World Tourism Organization asserted in its Global Forecasts and beyond is the issue of sustainability in tourism and hospitality, which positively and perfectly correlate to the absorptive capacity of an economy with respect to tourism.
This not only fail to refer to the physical capacity but also to the capacity of a particular area of adventure to give tourism infrastructure, pool of investments resources, human resource, and natural resources.
While human resource would not be a constraint, other natural resources might be (Muller, 2011). The theory of tourism sustainability and empowerment therefore off late has become of importance relevance,that is crucial in promoting environmental awareness and improve tourism industry all over the globe.
Apart from the environmental issues, a burning issue arise. This might emerge as an impediment is inadequate trained skilled manpower to deliver value additions.
In conclusion, it can be asserted that, although many tourism theories have been documented by many scholars to find out the roles and tasks, the features of tourists to improve the industry and the entire economy (Richard, 2014). There is inadequate awareness concerning these theories amidst the policy makers. Tourism sector is still one of those sectors, which are regulated by government legal formalities (Latham, 2010). There are many types of conceptual and theoretical approaches to tourism sector and its sustainability, that have to be tested in reality. There is a further need for more areas of studies and employment of skilled manpower in conducting the analytical research, which will assist in achievement of greater theoretical orientation and practical application.
The tourism sector has been developing at a great rate. The huge increase in population have a big effect on the industry, but the numbers of tourists worldwide are expected to be twice as time elapses.
Keeping on record with the changing times, consumer demands will also change, more categories based on growing needs of tourists might appear (Klosterboer, 2011). Tourism has enabled the destination and sustainability of many participants in the entire globe. It is important to note that tourism sector has developed from the rural to urban tourism such that in the early 50’s, the development of tourism had not been realized up to early 80’s towards late 90’s (Harding, 2014). This has enabled many stakeholders to attain a lot of wealth in this sector. This rapid growth in tourism sector has also enabled the development of new tourism product in the various sections. Foreign exchange has also been one of the areas highly positively favored by tourism. This has enabled many countries to generate realizable revenue over short time and also able to maintain the environment.
In conclusion, it is important to appreciate the outstanding work played by tourism sector. With great perfect positive correlation with hospitality, these two sectors are ranked among the very best in employing young minds who tend to be innovative and make them realize their potential. Again, many organizations have gathered together to promote this sector (Grummit, 2007). Many governments have enacted policies that have promoted tourism and hospitality. The major tariffs have been removed to ensure concrete relationship among all the stakeholders involved in hospitality and tourism in general. This paper therefore aim at driving the motive that hospitality and tourism have become one of the pillars of the economy.
Grummit, A. (2007). Capacity Management. Van Haren Publishing
Harding, A. (2014). Urban Theory. A Critical Introduction to Power, Cities and Urbanism in the 21st Century. Sage Publication ltd.
Klosterboer, L. (2011). ITIL Capacity Management. IBM Press.
Latham, J. (2010). Java. Just in Time. College Publication.
Muller, M. (2011). Essential of Inventory Management. AMACOM.
Myerson, D. (2012). Lean Supply Chain and Logical Management. McGraw-Hill Education.
Marylene, G. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation and Self-Determination Theory. OUP USA.
Maslow, A.H. (2013). A Theory of Human Motivation. Start publishing LLC.
Maslow, A.H. (2011). Hierarchy of Needs: A Theory of Human Motivation. www.all.about-psychology.com.
Mohammed, H.G., & Sheriff, S.Y. (2010). Islamic Theory of Motivation. Deep & Deep publication.
Piasecki, D.J. (2009). Inventory Management Explained. OPS publishing.
Richard, G. (2014). Warehouse Management. Kogan Page.
Rothfuss, P. (2008). The Name of the Wind. DAW Books.
Richard, A. (2013). Job Satisfaction from Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Perspective. Grin publishing.
Ryan, R.M., & Deci, EL. (2017). Self-Determination Theory: Basic Psychological Need in Motivation, development and Wellness. The Guilford Press.
Spirou, C. (2010). Urban Tourism and Urban Changes: Cities in the Global Economy. Routledge.
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