Sustainable tourism is a type of tourism that takes into account the current as well as future impacts regarding social, economic and environmental issues (Sdt.unwto.org, 2015).
As stated by, Newsome et al. (2013) sustainable tourism is becoming more and more popular and ever growing industry. Sustainable tourism can be called as an alternative tourism that serves many social and environmental issues of the locality. Sustainable tourism involves ecotourism, cultural tourism and nature based tourism. Sustainable tourism therefore respects the value of regional culture, environment and the traveler as well as local people. Sustainable tourism has increased in a number that people are looking for an educational holiday in that the people will work for the cause of society and the environment.
Therefore, the main aim and objective of sustainable tourism is to increase the employment opportunities as well as developed infrastructure in order to safeguard the culture of the people of local area and the cultural heritage of the place as well as country.
On the other hand, Raj et al. (2013) defined that Sustainable Tourism requires the participation of stakeholders of different levels. This type of tourism helps to build consensus among the participants of wide area. Development of sustainable tourism is a continuous process for achieving the proper goal. Sustainable tourism therefore requires necessary monitoring of impact. For this purpose, corrective as well as necessary measures have to be taken by the concerned authority of sustainable tourism.
However, Leung (2013) argued that, huge level of satisfaction among the tourists is also required for providing effective sustainable tourism. Sustainable tourism also seeks to raise the awareness of the tourists about some issues of environment and society as well as people of the society. The objective of sustainable tourism also helps to promote efficient tourism practice for the tourists. Therefore, Sigala (2013) argued that sustainable tourism has the aim to balance the requirements of tourists with the demands of the particular communities of local area in order to protect the environmental needs of the locality and also the demands of the people in accordance with the environment and society. The economy of the locality as well as needs of the environment should be balanced for achieving the needs within different groups of interest.
However, Guiver (2013) stated in this fact that, the activity of sustainable tourism in third world country has been increased. This process increases the prior activity of developing countries in order to develop the economy, tourism and social aspects of those countries. Sustainable tourism therefore works as the strategy of development of those developing countries throughout the economy, environment as well as people of the society. Attaining an effective strategy of sustainable tourism developing countries can achieve more economic benefit and education as well as opportunities of employment.
Sustainable Mass Tourism:
As defined by, Guiver (2013), mass tourism involves more than ten thousand people often go to the same hotel or resort within a particular time of a year. This can be called as one of the cheapest technique for planning a holiday. Many tourism organizations often provide mass tourism within attractive package. It is the large scale practice of tourism that does not involve the impact of environment and society. It often does not include measures of several action of environment.
On the other hand, Page (2013) argued that the practice of mass tourism often destroys the cultural identities as well as environment of the place. Some stated that mass tourism has not the ability to make business sustainable for the tourists. However, it is some sort of true statement that, the media earns more money from the advertising the location of the tourist spot etc. Therefore, the package product has been used for the mass tourism.
Therefore, mass tourism does not encourage the practice of keeping the environment clean and clear. Often this type of mass tourism destroys the environment as well as the habitants of the particular place where tourists come in order to enjoy the holiday. This type of tourism also does not provide adequate attention to the local cultural heritage of the place. Therefore, Leung (2013) describes that practice of mass tourism often helps to market the place for only profitable purpose of business. The image of consumerism has been implemented within the mind of the consumers rather than tourists. Several tour organizers reconstruct the image of the particular tourist spot as product for the consumers. They often create a package of the particular place in accordance with the attractive features those are beyond the cultural heritage of the particular place. The purpose of education of the local people is often destroyed by this type of mass tourism. This type of business does not focus upon the environmental sustainability of the place. They have no responsibility upon the local people of the place or the society (Sustainabletourism.net,2015).
Appropriateness of sustainable mass tourism for future positioning of destinations:
Appropriate process of tourism can be achieved effectively is the tourist organization. Appropriate planning and managing activity should be done for developing the activity of mass tourism that will ensure the business process of the particular organization. Sustainable destination should be considered with three major aspects like carrying capacity, management of destination as well as strategic planning. Therefore, carrying capacity can be referred as the central concept of sustainable tourism. Carrying capacity of destination can be useful in order to understand the tourism activity (Sustainabletourism.net, 2015).
Managing the destination refers to the management of the particular place of tourism with effective tool of strategic management. Process of destination management helps to provide competitive tourism for the destination. Coordination among the management activities therefore help in order to provide effective management for the destination. Therefore, destination management involves planning and development process, management and marketing process. Therefore, strategic planning is necessary for the development of sustainable. Destination management helps to encourage the collaboration as well as cooperation in order to strengthen the practice of sustainable mass tourism (UNESCO, 2015).
Newsome, D., Moore, S. and Dowling, R. (2013). Natural area tourism. Bristol: Channel View Publications.
Page, S. (2013). Tourism management. London: Routledge.
Raj, R., Griffin, K. and Morpeth, N. (2013). Cultural tourism. Cambridge, MA: CAB International.
Guiver, J. (2013). Debate: Can sustainable tourism include flying?. Tourism Management Perspectives, 6, pp.65-67.
Leung, X. (2013). Strategic Marketing in Tourism Services. Tourism Management, 37, pp.112-113.
Sigala, M. (2013). Tourism, Magic and Modernity: Cultivating the Human Garden. Tourism Management, 37, p.36.
Sdt.unwto.org, (2015). Sustainable Development of Tourism | Committed to Tourism, Travel and the Millennium Development Goals. [online] Available at: https://sdt.unwto.org [Accessed 6 Mar. 2015].
Sustainabletourism.net, (2015). Sustainable Tourism. [online] Available at: https://www.sustainabletourism.net [Accessed 6 Mar. 2015].
UNESCO, (2015). UNESCO. [online] Available at: https://www.unesco.org [Accessed 6 Mar. 2015].