Discuss about the smart city and find the complexity in the system using the system dynamics methodology.
The idea of smart city has turned into the focal thought to which urban communities are currently swinging to confront their difficulties and seek after the requests put on them. This is outlined by a European Commission study to survey how a wide assortment of shrewd city activities add to the skyline 2020 objectives and assets being made accessible for such activities (Boateng, Chen and Ogunlana, 2016). In any case, numerous meanings of a savvy city exist and the utilization of "smart" is utilized as a part of a self-salutary style.
In both connected and experimental production the idea 'smart city' is utilized as a part of an assortment of courses: as a capacity that urban areas have, as a holder to mean different activities and developments, and as a name utilized by urban communities themselves (de Vries and Han 2015). Particularly this last utilization of the savvy urban community’s idea has gotten significant feedback (Caponio et al. 2015). Being "smart" is by definition seen as a positive property. Lastly it is hard to separate build-up and showcasing on one side and helpful developments and a basic viewpoint on the eventual fate of urban areas on the other.
Now in the examination we have increased some knowledge in what sorts of smart city activities exist and why they may be utilized. A detailed analysis is done on the smart city to gauge the brilliance of the city advancement and accumulation of information about the infrastructure. In light of writing a wide system of six qualities framed and that measure the capacity of a city to be shrewd, (Das 2013) such as:
- Smart people
- Smart living
- Smart Environment
- Smart Economy
- Smart Mobility
- Smart Governance
The study puts underline on various parts of activities including a "comprehensive" methodology. The smart mobility is chosen from the six components of the smart city and discussed in details.
Smart Mobility depicts the city openness both by various methods of transport and ICT. A vital viewpoint that decides the measure of movement in the city is the financial imperativeness (Raj and Dwivedi 2016). Urban arranging quality can lessen the measure of activity by decreasing urban sprawl and making urban areas open by foot or bicycle.
Figure 1: Casual Loop diagram of Smart Mobility
(Source: Created by author)
Concept of Smart mobility
Transportation problems cannot be solved by solutions that merely deliver smoothness on its own or sustainability on its own. Rather than optimizing the various different modes of transportation independently, a balanced smooth and sustainable approach is possible by optimizing the overall system (Sukarno, Matsumoto and Susanti 2016).
Currently, each transportation company provides its own services. The provision of transportation in a way that realizes the smart mobility concept requires building a network for the coordination of transportation companies (Tsolakis and Anthopoulos, 2015). It collects and analyses information from the various companies that operate in the city and supplies each company with information they can use to optimize the overall system.
Five layers of transportation functions
(1) Transportation user experience layer (domain of transportation service users): Layer in which users receive transportation, information, and other services from transportation companies as they travel from place to place
(2) Transportation services layer (domain of transportation companies): Layer in which transportation companies supply services to users
(3) Information collection layer (domain of transportation companies): Layer in which usage information is collected, such as on how users use the services supplied by transportation companies (Veldhuis, van Scheepstal and Vink 2014)
(4) Information management and control layer (domain of transportation companies): Layer in which information management and control is performed to ensure that transportation companies supply their services smoothly
(5) Transportation company coordination layer (domain of transportation companies): Layer in which information from all the transportation companies is collected and analysed, and information is provided to guide the operation, control, and other functions of the transportation companies with the aim of optimizing the city’s overall transportation system (Tsolakis and Anthopoulos, 2015).
Some examples of Transportation Service
The following describes the commuter’s experience and the operation of the systems run by the transportation companies, which are invisible to the commuters.
- Multi-modal navigation service: In response to the user entering his desired destination and indicating that his priority is to travel cheaply and quickly, his mobile handset displays a route comprising the optimum mix of transportation companies that will deliver him there quickly and cheaply, and in an energy-efficient way (Sukarno, Matsumoto and Susanti 2016).
- Integrated fare collection service: If getting the commuter to his destination involves travel by different bus and train companies, this service allows him to use a smartcard to pay a single fare calculated based on departure and destination instead of paying each company separately at each change of vehicle.
- Service to smooth transfers between bus and train: This service coordinates the arrival times of buses at the railway station to connect with the train schedule (Veldhuis, van Scheepstal and Vink 2014). This eliminates waiting time when changing from bus to train.
- Electric Vehicle bus charging management system: In this system, the EV (electric vehicle) bus power management system provides information to the bus operation management system via the analysis functions of the urban management infrastructure indicating where, on what route, and when it should be recharged based on its current state of charge (Raj and Dwivedi 2016). As a result, the solution contributes to sustainability (another of the values of smart mobility) by encouraging efficient use of the EV buses and helping reduce CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions.
The essential objective of our work was to build up a re-usable model that could serve as a device for examining and growing new smart city activities by deciding how these activities impact smart city objectives. We have shown how way and circle examination can be utilized to this end. Together with city authorities, we are presently talking about how the model can be utilized as a part of their practice. So far we have connected the model on one event and a second bigger task is planned. Numerous current investigations of keen urban areas concentrate on specific sorts of intercessions, frequently ICT driven, or on yield measurements depicting how well a city scores on criteria, for example, global get to or level of instruction. What these studies don't give is a systemic depiction of how diverse qualities of a brilliant city are interrelated. In the gathering task research program 'Smart Cities' we picked the idea in an all encompassing way.
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Caponio, G., Massaro, V., Mossa, G. and Mummolo, G., 2015. Strategic Energy Planning of Residential Buildings in a Smart City: A System Dynamics Approach. International Journal of Engineering Business Management, 7.
Das, D.K., 2013. Using system dynamics principles for conceptual modelling of smart city development in South Africa.
de Vries, B.B. and Han, Q.Q., 2015. HOW TO CREATE A SMART CITY?.
Raj, A. and Dwivedi, G., 2016, January. SMART City: An Integrated Approach Using System Dynamics. In International Conference on Smart Cities, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Sukarno, I., Matsumoto, H. and Susanti, L., 2016. Transportation energy consumption and emissions-a view from city of Indonesia. Future Cities and Environment, 2(1), p.6.
Tsolakis, N. and Anthopoulos, L., 2015. Eco-cities: An integrated system dynamics framework and a concise research taxonomy. Sustainable Cities and Society, 17, pp.1-14.
Veldhuis, G.A., van Scheepstal, P.G.M. and Vink, N., 2014. Development of a generic Smart City model using MARVEL. Albany, NY: The System Dynamics Society.