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Task 1. Describe the ways in which “knowledge” differs from “data” and “information.” Justify your answer with a relevant diagram.

Task 2. Compare and contrast tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge.

Task 3. Consider three decisions you have made today. (They could be simple such as, taking a turn while driving or even choosing a soda at a convenience store.) In each case determine the data, information, or knowledge that were involved in the decision?


Task 1


Gathering the raw materials from all the sources in a non-sequence manner is called the data. This data can be anything and can be gathering from anywhere (Badia). Data are not gathering in the organized way and cannot be specific. They can be in any form and shape and are not alike to one another.


The values are added to the non-sequence data and are grouping and converting into a meaningful format and then processing to form information. Information can be categorized and formed by condensed the data (Cuzzocrea). It can be similar to one another.


When the examination of the information are done and considered, then it is called knowledge. It is also called knowledge when the information is functional in an exacting situation. The information that are contextualized and better understanding can say as knowledge (Badia).


Task 2

Explicit knowledge

Explicit knowledge is the knowledge that is systematic and formal. Sharing and communication can become easy in this type of knowledge. It is easy to store and can kept in the documentation form (Burnett). This knowledge is alike to information and can be stored and also this can be evaluate, update, or discard. It can be shared in the form of data.

This explicit knowledge can be found in the memos, databases, documents, scientific formula, specification and presentation report, information of finance, manuals and codes.


Tacit knowledge

Tacit knowledge cannot express easily. Tacit knowledge is very personal and formalize is not easy. The communication with the others becomes difficult in this type of knowledge. Some of the tacit knowledge can be captured and can make explicit but of the tacit knowledge cannot be captured. It is based on the personal experience and rooted in involvement, commitments, values, emotions and the ideas (Agassi). It is the knowledge that is kept in the mind and can be share only to the trusted person. If anyone is unable to communicate with the others, he will also unable to share this knowledge.

This Tacit knowledge can be found in the personal experience, know-how, sense making and insights.

Task 3

The three decisions that I have made today in my journey to the office are as follows:





Taking a bus

bus, ticket, money, bus stand, office and bus seat

I took a bus and to go to the office.

I go to the bus stand, got inside the bus, take a seat, give the money and take a ticket from the conductor and go to the office.


Buy a biscuit

Money, biscuit, shopkeeper and shop

Purchase a biscuit for Tiffin


Go to the shop, give the money to the shopkeeper and take the biscuit from him for my Tiffin.

Wait for lift

Lift, people, liftman, flat number and office

Took a lift and arrived at the office.


Go the lift, line for the lift behind many people, got into the lift and told the liftman the flat number and go to the office.



Agassi, J. 'Book Review: Tacit And Explicit Knowledge'. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43.2 (2013): 275-279. Web.

Badia, Antonio. 'Data, Information, Knowledge: An Information Science Analysis'. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 65.6 (2014): 1279-1287. Web.

Burnett, Simon. 'Explicit To Tacit: The Role Of Explicit Knowledge In Technological Innovation'. Libri 62.2 (2012): n. pag. Web.

Cuzzocrea, Alfredo. 'Data Warehousing And Knowledge Discovery From Sensors And Streams'. Knowl Inf Syst 28.3 (2011): 491-493. Web.


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