Discuss about the Targeting Reduction in Consumption System.
In the recent decades, case of obesity have been on the rise in the United States of America. The end result has not been conducive as cases such as coronary heart diseases have been on the rise leading to mortality. Despite other developed countries experiencing a similar surge, the rates in the United States of America remains to be the highest in the world. Statistics indicate that two out of three American men are obese. The cases in women on the other hand are even higher. It is further estimated that an average of $1429 is spent annually on medical expenses by an obese individual in the United States of America (Rosenthal et al.1648). This translates to approximately $147 billion spent on medical expenses in the USA within a year. Within the OECD, Obesity is the highest in the United States of America (Asieba 1). In 1962, the rates were at 23% and the rates have increased steadily to 39.4% in 1997, 44.5% in 2004, 56.6% in 2007 and 63.8% in in 2008 (Dawes 28). The CDC in 2010, reported 65.7% of the American Adults as being obese. The OECD in 2013, reported 57.6% of the American population as being obese. The same organization further predicts that by the year 2020, three quarter of the United States of America population will be obese.
According to recent figures from the CDC in 2014, 36.5% of the US adults who are 20 years and older and 17% of children, as well as adolescents whose ages range between 2-19 years, were also obese (Stearns 1039). Another study carried out by the National Centre for Health Statistics at CDC indicate that during the 2015-2016 year, 39.6% of adults in the USA who were 20 years old and above were obese. When the statistics were further broken down, 37.9% were men while 41.1% were women.
Obesity in the United States of America has been attributed to the cause of 100,000-400,000 deaths annually. This has further increased the federal government expenditure to approximately $117 billion in the treatment of the condition.
Obesity and Children in America
Currently, one out of three American kids is believed to be overweight or obese. From 1971 to 2011, the rates of obesity have tripled. With this worrying trend, obesity has been the number one health concern among parents in the USA toppling substance abuse and smoking ("Parent- and Family-Level Factors Associated with Childhood Obesity 162). Obesity is causing diverse health conditions that previously couldn’t be seen in children up to adulthood. The health conditions include high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and higher levels of blood cholesterol. Besides, there are psychological effects such as low self-esteem, negative body image as well as depression (Dawes 517). Obesity in children is associated with earlier obesity-related diseases as well as death in adulthood. One of the genuine reason as to why obesity is on the rise according to Surgeon General Richard Carmona is unhealthy eating habits and increased inactivity.
There are ten leading causes of obesity in the United States of America. One such cause is genetics. In case one family member had the condition, it may be passed over to other family members. Other causes include engineered junk foods, food addiction, and aggressive marketing. Another cause is insulin resistance in the body ("Targeting Reduction in Consumption of Added Sugars for Addressing Childhood Obesity," 412). This is because insulin is a hormone that dictates the body to store or breakdown excess fats in the body. If the body fails to respond to insulin, then obesity is likely to develop. Certain medications such as antipsychotics are also leading causes of obesity in America as well as Leptin resistance. Increased sugar intake can also lead to obesity as well inactivity.
Recently, obesity has developed into a chronic condition which is affecting both children, adolescents, and adults in the United States of America. The rates of obesity have since 1980, doubled in children while in adolescents, the rate has tripled (Parra et al. 41). Statistics indicate that 15% of the children whose ages range from six to nineteen years are considered as overweight (Himpens 528). It is further estimated that over 60% of the adult population in the United States of America is overweight or rather obese. Earlier onset of Type two diabetes which is a common occurrence in adults is of late being seen earlier in children by healthcare professionals (Alston & Okrent 9). Furthermore, cardiovascular diseases, as well as obesity related depression, are being exhibited in children. The duration of obesity in an individual is directly proportional to the obesity-related risk factors. Since obesity is associated with other chronic diseases and the fact that it is tedious to treat, prevention of the condition is crucial.
Reducing obesity through exercise
For one to effectively lose weight and maintain a healthy weight, regular physical activity is necessary. Increased physical activity elevates the number of calories that are burnt off the body as well as reducing the number of calories that one eats. This state of calorie deficit results in what is known as weight loss. Besides, physical activity also assists in reducing diabetes, reducing blood pressure and reducing the risk of osteoporosis. It also reduces the symptoms of depression as well as anxiety.
The most common method of fighting obesity has been through the use of the diet. There are different dietary approaches that healthcare professionals recommend to individuals who are obese. The different dietary approaches include the low and moderate fat diets, the high protein diet, the low carbohydrates diet and finally the low glycemic index diets (Westerterp-Plantenga 194). There is a continued debate however as to how energy balance remains the core of weight control and the weight loss by reducing on some foods and macronutrients.
According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, consuming a low fat diet composed of 20-35% fats helps reduce obesity. The particular guidelines have recommendations on the foods that should be increased and the foods that should be reduced. Of the foods listed that should be reduced include trans-fat and sodium added sugars (Caballero, Vorkoper, Anand, & Rivera 7). Foods that should be increased on the other hand include fruits and vegetables. Of all the dietary approaches to reduce obesity, the Low-fat diet is the best approach. This is in accordance with the randomized studies that have been conducted by three large studies namely the PREMIER trial, the diabetes prevention Program and finally the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. These studies were done by comparing groups who were on a low-fat diet and those that were subjected to normal standards of living. More studies have also had the same findings such as the Ahead Trial.
Very low-fat diets
Some studies have indicated that fat intakes of less than 20% of the total calories are crucial to optimal health. Diets that offer between 10-20% fats are the ones defined as very low fat. Examples of such diets include the Pritikin as well as the Ornish diets (Archer, 2015 556). These are exclusively plant-based diets such as fruits with minimal amounts of fat and dairy products. Very low-fat diets differ with Low-fat diets in the sense that the very low-fat diet totally discourage eating foods that have a high quantity of carbohydrates. There have been however few studies on the efficacy of very low diets. A Lifestyle Heart Trial Conducted however found out that a combination of the very low-fat diet, moderate aerobic activity stress management as well as ceasing smoking have positive outcomes in reducing obesity. To confirm this, Benard et al compared weight loss among individuals with type two diabetes who were consuming the vegan diet and that diet outlined by the American Diabetes Association(Archer, 2015 556). The results indicated that after 22 weeks, there was a reduction of obesity in both the diets. This is enough proof therefore that the very low diet is as well an arsenal in reducing obesity.
At the moment, there still remains no standard definition of high protein diet. It is however generally assumed that an intake of more than 25% of the total energy is high protein intake diet. According to several studies carried out earlier, a high protein diet was known to reduce overweight as well as improving the composition of the body. The improvements in body composition associated with the high protein diet are decreases in the waist circumference, the waste ratio as well as the intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Recent studies have also shown that higher protein diet is beneficial on both the weight loss and the composition of the body and this is more prominent in individuals with a higher risk of Cardiovascular Diseases as well as the metabolic syndrome. A higher protein diet can be more effective when combined with resistance training. From the explanations above, it is very clear that dietary approach is effective in reducing obesity in the United States of America.
According to different studies, individuals who utilize dieting efforts to reduce obesity are known to regain the weight lost despite maintaining their diet as well as the exercise programs. It is estimated that between one and two-thirds of people on calorie restricted diet regain even more weight than initially lost. Most studies conclude that dieting is a strong precursor of weight gain and not reducing overweight.
Obesity is associated with different health effects. High blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, joint problems such as osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, cancer and metabolic syndrome are all health conditions that might arise due to obesity (Chiasson et al., 126). Obesity is also known to have psychosocial effects since we live in a culture where physical attractiveness matters most. And since obese individuals are known to be fat and clumsy, this makes them have very low self-esteem.
Obesity is a health concern in the United States of America. Some of the leading causes of the condition include physical inactivity and poor diet plans. Obesity is associated with other health conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure. Some of the precautionary measures to reduce the condition are through dietary formulations like the low fat and very low-fat diets and regular physical exercises as well. Of the two options, however, regular exercise is the best option since it burns off excess calories in the body. Diets, on the other hand, are known to regain weight later on rather than reducing the weight. It is the obligation of anyone to monitor their health status to reduce the risks of obesity.
Alston, J. M., and A. M. Okrent. "Introduction." The Effects of Farm and Food Policy on Obesity in the United States, 2017, pp. 1-12, doi:10.1057/978-1-137-47831-3_1.
Archer, E. "In reply—Maternal, Paternal, and Societal Efforts Are Needed to “Cure” Childhood Obesity." Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 90, no. 4, 2015, pp. 555-557, doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.01.020.
Asieba, I. O. "Racial/Ethnic Trends in Childhood Obesity in the United States." Journal of Childhood Obesity, vol. 01, no. 01, 2016, doi:10.21767/2572-5394.100001.
Caballero, B., et al. "Preventing childhood obesity in Latin America: an agenda for regional research and strategic partnerships." Obesity Reviews, vol. 18, 2017, pp. 3-6, doi:10.1111/obr.12573.
Chiasson, M. A., et al. "Predictors of Obesity in a Cohort of Children Enrolled in WIC as Infants and Retained to 3 Years of Age." Journal of Community Health, vol. 41, no. 1, 2015, pp. 127-133, doi:10.1007/s10900-015-0077-2.
Dawes, L. Childhood Obesity in America. Harvard University Press, 2014.. "Childhood Obesity in America." 2014, doi:10.4159/harvard.9780674369573.
Himpens, J. "Bariatric surgery for diabetes control in overweight people." The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, vol. 2, no. 7, 2014, pp. 528-529, doi:10.1016/s2213-8587(14)70019-1.
"Parent- and Family-Level Factors Associated with Childhood Obesity." Childhood Obesity, 2016, pp. 159-169, doi:10.1201/9781315370958-16.
Parra, D. C., et al. "Research capacity for childhood obesity prevention in Latin America: an area for growth." Obesity Reviews, vol. 18, 2017, pp. 39-46, doi:10.1111/obr.12579.
Rosenthal, R. J., et al. "Obesity in America." Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, vol. 13, no. 10, 2017, pp. 1643-1650, doi:10.1016/j.soard.2017.08.002.
Stearns, P. N. "Childhood Obesity in America: Biography of an Epidemic. By Laura Dawes." Journal of Social History, vol. 49, no. 4, 2015, pp. 1007-1008, doi:10.1093/jsh/shv080.
"Targeting Reduction in Consumption of Added Sugars for Addressing Childhood Obesity." Childhood Obesity, 2016, pp. 409-419, doi:10.1201/9781315370958-38.
Westerterp-Plantenga, M. "Dietary Protein and Weight Management." Handbook of Obesity – Volume 2, 2014, pp. 193-206, doi:10.1201/b16472-19.