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Question:

Discuss about the Taylorism and Linear Programming.
 
 

Answer:

Taylorism

Key ideas learned from the e-learning

  1. Work efficiency
  2. Cost reduction
  3. Economies of scale
  4. Lack of labor unions
  5. Men were treated like machines
  6. Invention of production lines

The Taylorism ideology might not be acceptable at all in the modern Australia, America or Europe since these nations have continuously evolved and moved on from the scientific theory of management that used to treat workers like machines. The idea of bringing work efficiency during the time when Ford was manufacturing cheap cars took place at the expense of the workers, whom Taylor gave a structured routine that limited creativity(Harris, & Nelson, 2016). The modern time's theory of management is contrary to Taylors as it values the workforce and views it as an organization asset. Moreover, the organization ensures work efficiency through providing better work tools and improving the work environment as well as providing training. Also, Taylorism did not recognize the role of the labor unions and victimized who ever joined the union, while in the modern management practice the role of the labor union has been given a place in the organization's considerations. However not all about Taylorism can be refuted by Australia, America or Europe. The concept of mass production or economies of scale is still in use especially in the modern manufacturing as it helps the cost of production and increases profits as well as optimally tap the workforce output. Moreover, the Taylorism concept contributed to the invention of production lines which helped increase work efficiency and is still in use in many of the industrialized countries (Hasan, & Zhou, 2015).

The Taylorism concept can best be described through the example of a calling center. In calling centers, individuals are authorized to connect calls from one caller to another. In such a work setup, work efficiency is achieved when the worker can connect as the man calls as possible. Just like in Taylorism, production efficiency is achieved when the worker manages to contribute more to work, this kind of an approach regards the worker to be a machine and fails to consider that as the worker continues to operate the level of productivity also decreases due to fatigue unlike machines (levis, 2017).

However, the Taylorism approach can still apply to the third world economies, as it helps to boost economic growth, through mass production as well as through increased incomes. According to the clip, the move by Henry Ford to double salaries made the country’s economy to grow as well as improved the country’s GDP. Moreover, the same move increased the chances of the worker to access a vehicle besides driving the production into unimaginable capacity(Loader, 2015).

 

Linear programming

Key ideas

Resource optimization

Cost reduction

Identification of constraints

Maximization and minimization of variables

The limitations of linear programming

Though the linear programming techniques are widely used by management especially in car manufacturing industry, it does have the following limitations.

In linear programming, it is highly complex to determine the specific objective function

It is also hard to determine the various financial and technological constraints that are operating to pursue a given objective even if the particular objective is laid down.

Sometimes a given set of constraints may not be directly be interpreted as linear inequalities in a specified objective and set of constraints (wisely, 2006).

If it happens that the challenges mentioned above are adequately addressed, it would still be a problem in determining the relevant values required for the constant coefficient that is fed into the linear programming model such as the price.

The linear programming technique relies on a hypothesis that considers input and output to be linear. As a result, the hypothesis suggests that the inputs and outputs can be divided, multiplied and even added. However, in real life, output and inputs do not always have a linear relationship, and sometimes their relation is not clear.

The assumption of the technique that there is an existence of perfect competition in product and factor markets does not happen in real life.

The linear programming technique operates on a hypothesis of consistent returns. However, in real life, a firm can only experience either diminishing or increasing returns in production

Linear programming is highly complex and as it requires maximization or minimization of clearly specified variables. Also, the solution is obtained through the simplex method which is composed of mathematical calculations with huge numbers.

Linear programming uses models that give trial and error solutions; this limits the ability to find the optimal solution for various economic complexities (McEwan, 2014).

Application of linear programming

In a typical car manufacturing industry, the linear programming is used to perform the following functions:

Application of linear programming technique is mostly used in production management to determine the optimal allocation of resources such as materials and workforce (Loader, 2015).

Also, it is applied in personnel management to solve challenges relating to recruitment and deployment.

Linear programming also applies in inventory management to minimize inventory cost.

Marketing management is also another area where linear programming is applied to analyze the audience coverage of advertising based on the available media(Mathews, 2014).

The linear programming technique also plays a role in financial management, where it is applied in the selection of investment portfolios.

Finally, the linear programming technique is used to blend problems when the final product is produced by mixing various raw materials.

Conclusion

Taylorism approach is the mother of production efficiency that saw Ford manages to deliver on his goal of manufacturing cheap cars that Americans could afford. His interest in improving the time taken to perform a particular piece of work is what drove him to treat human beings as machines. However, his contribution to the world of management has contributed immensely on how wages are paid as well as introduced the concept of work distribution. Moreover, the increased number of tasks and challenges, as well as the evolution of management practices, has given rise to linear programming which helps to determine the course of action of the management

 

References

Frank, m. (2017). Ford and Taylor Scientific Management (Edited). YouTube. Retrieved 5 May 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8PdmNbqtDdI

Harris, T., & Nelson, M. (2016). Applied organizational communication (1st ed.). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hasan, M., & Zhou, S. (2015). Knowledge Management in Global Organisations. International Business Research, 8(6). https://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ibr.v8n6p165

levis, k. (2017). Riding the waves of culture: Fons Trompenaars at TEDxAmsterdam. YouTube. Retrieved 5 May 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hmyfjKjcbm0

Loader, D. (2015). Fundamentals of global operations management (1st ed.). Chichester, England: John Wiley.

Mathews, J. (2014). The Evolving Global Mindset and the Management of Organisations. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2344640

McEwan, T. (2014). Managing values and beliefs in organisations (1st ed.). Harlow, England: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.

wesly, b. (2006). Integrating Global Organisations: The Role of Performance Measurement Systems. Management Accounting Research, 17(1), 121-122. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mar.2005.12.003

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