Describe about The Teenage Brain Peer Influences On Adolescent Decision Making?
1: Increases in population exposed environmental lead pollution that impact on the overall population of the country and the world. State's decision makers (State Senate and Assembly) would require to consider the assumptions related to population's exposure while taking risk management decision (Johnson, et al. 2006). State's decision makers analyze various risk assessment issues such as assessing toxicity, relevance to humans, population exposures, risks of chemical mixture and risk associated with ecologic, micro-organisms and radiation.
State's decision makers (State Senate and Assembly) would respond to the citizens through understands their perception or view about the risk management and considers it in risk management decision making. State's decision makers would consider the many challenges related to potential human toxicity of present chemical exposures (Stamatelatos & Dezfuli, 2011). The nature and magnitude of the explosion of population’s data on samples obtained from the State sources must be consider by state decision makers.
The current situation of chemical hazards and the relationship between exposures and effects on human being also with toxicity tests in laboratory animals considered by State's decision makers in risk management or assessment to protect the citizens. In addition, State's decision makers must use the mechanical based tests to assessment substances’ toxicity and carcinogenicity position in the state to assess the risk in the state (Linkov, et al. 2006). It also considers information about chemicals’ modes of action and assessing human health risk in the state while taking the right decision for protecting the citizens for these kinds of risks.
2: State’s decision makers should use the mechanism-based model to assess carcinogenicity and toxicity risk level in the state. Moreover, it should use the chemicals’ modes of action model to assess chemical exposure impact on human health risks. It should also use other national models for solving environment problems (Dai, Lee & Ngai, 2002). For example, use analytic models to estimate the level of human exposure and the probability of human to response exposures.
In addition, invalidated mathematical model should be used to predict the population’s exposure when they have limited information on chemical contamination. Pairing off mathematical/statistical model like Monte Carlo techniques should be used to toxicity testing and to assess many complex mixtures due to the automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and other combustion products (Stamatelatos & Dezfuli, 2011). State’s decision makers assumptions about the population explosion are evaluated on the basis of past data and current trends of the whole nation and world related to exploration of population. Assumptions related to toxicity testing and complex mixture is evaluated while considered the other factors data that related to them such as selling of cigarettes, total volume of automobiles in State, etc (Rothstein, Huber & Gaskell, 2006).
In addition, prediction of complex mixture’s toxicity or human health risk may be tested through comparing the result with similar mixtures of toxicity or risk. Moreover, most of the information comes from human occupational studies that can evaluate environmental doses that are higher than the low to assess validity of population's exposure assumption (Andersen, et al. 2004). Population exposure assumption generally measures on the basis of four distinct components that are sources of pollutants, transport of these pollutants from target organisms, exposures of a target organism to various sources of pollutants and effects resulting from these exposures. Each component can study separately to determine the assumptions made about the population's exposure are valid or not.
3: Decision making is traditionally viewed as a rational process where reason calculates the best way to achieve the goal. Investigations from different areas of cognitive science have shown that human decisions and actions are much more influenced by intuition and emotional responses then it was previously thought. Decision maker will be focusing primarily on the relationship between the conscious (voluntary) and unconscious (automatic) decision making processes. It will be shown how the dominant view in Western philosophy and science, according to which decision making was mainly a process of instrumental rationality, ignored the importance of emotions that often play an important role in decision making on unconscious level.
A common person from the street would probably give a more balanced view on decision making then philosophers and scientist who mainly deal only with the rational part of the decision making (at least until recently). Decision making was from Plato on regarded as a rational process although the influence of emotions was not totally rejected. The role of emotions was in setting the goals and in motivation, whereas in reaching practical decisions, reason and emotion were in opposition. The age of enlightenment and rationalism stressed reason even more and later, the requirement that we should act in accordance to reason changed into the statement that we actually do act in accordance to reason, and emotions have slowly disappeared from the serious discussions (Giacalone & Promislo, 2012). The result is overvaluation of the self control and of the awareness of the situation and negation of the other side of human behaviour, i.e. impulsiveness and lack of self control. But as a man from the street could tell us, there are many important decisions in life where we do not deliberate about alternatives and do not think about the consequences.
1 (a): In the Sony’s decision to develop, produce and market the Walkman main stakeholders are company’s management, team, and customers, while the decision makers are management or top authorities. Implementers are Ohsone’s team that is managed the design and production of the Walkman (Kotler, 2012). In the context of President Kennedy’s decision to blockade Cuba during the Cuban missile crisis of October 1962, main decision maker are President Kennedy’s and stakeholders are other ministers, assemble members, and people of the country. The public and external force is also related to this decision of president during the Cuban missile crisis of October 1962. In addition, Treasury Secretary Paulson’s decision to launch the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) in the fall of 2008 decision is taken by the United States government (U.S. President George W. Bush on October 3, 2008) to purchase assets and equity from financial institutions to strengthen its financial sector that was signed into law. The main stakeholders are financial institutions (Herd-Clark & Murty, 2013).
(b): In the Sony decision, the management and team played major role to the design and manufacture Tape Recorder Operations Division (Walkman). In related to blockade Cuba during the Cuban missile crisis decision, President Kennedy’s perceptions are that this decision helped to face the Cuban Missile Crisis and played role to improve economy and living standard of the people (Gibson, 2012). In addition, Treasury Secretary Paulson’s perception behind the TARP is expenditure of $700 billion to purchase assets and equity from financial institutions to strengthen its financial sector.
2: In the last year, I have working in a clothing company that has used sweatshop labor to manufacture clothing products at low cost to fulfill the customer want, but it is unethical aspects of the business. In the present time, different ethical perspectives guide ethical decision making. For example, ethics play a major role in the total success and growth of the organizations. It is because ethical codes, standards, guidelines and policies developed by the business firms directly or indirectly encourage the employees or workers to do work professionally and ethically in the fulfillment of organizational long term and strategic goals in a more dynamic manner. The HR manager and HR team are the main decision makers those involved in this unethical decision for used sweatshop labor (Price, 2006). A clothing company uses of sweatshop labor to manufacture clothing products would be unethical aspects of the business because use of sweatshop labor means the company has poor pay of labor, has not considered their right related to wages and has not followed employee law rules and regulation.
So, the HR manager (decision maker) focused on business ethics through stop use of sweatshop labor. The HR manger has implemented remuneration strategy as pay remuneration or wages of labor according to the market and government standards to solve this issue. At the same time, it is also found that, through implement fair wages or remuneration policy, the managers and management of the cloth company is able to create and develop trust, better image and confidence in the global market. Moreover, the company involves all the employees and stakeholder in the decision making process so that ethical goals could be archived effectively (Carroll & Buchholtz, 2014). In the same way, ethical decision made by the company is accepted both legally and morally acceptable to the larger community and would be based on the different ethical perspectives.
3: In the last year, my company that manufactures plastic products faced the employee related issues. The company faced the labor strike in the last year due to the employee believed that the company has not paid them sufficient remuneration or low wages from the market or industry average. In this decision, HR and other departments’ top managers and management of the company involved in the decision making and played major role to communicate with labor union to solve the issued (Wart, 2005). The labor union perspective is the company or management paid employees sufficient revenue or wages similar to the market or industry average. In addition, the management perspective is the company faced losses in the few years so they has not increased revenue and wages of the employees in the past 2-3 years.
On the basis of the perspectives of both parties, it is identified that the main conflict is created due to the weakness in the company’s remuneration or wage policy. The labor union overlaps in their perspectives and wanted to changes in the company’s remuneration or wage policy through increase the wages of the employee. Moreover, to solve this issue, the management of the company’s considers the perspectives or demand of labor union while taking the decision (Plunkett, Attner & Allen, 2007). The company’s was agreed to changes in its remuneration or wage policy as increased the minimum wages or remuneration rate and provided the other financial benefits of the employees according their performance and post.
In this case, the end of the process, it was identified that the labor union or employees was winner as the company’s agree of their demand or need. The company’s agree to increase the minimum wages or remuneration rate and provide basic facilities or benefits of employees that indicates the labor union and employee was winner of this situation (Priest & Gass, 2005). In addition, the plastic product manufacturing company was not losers but it was also winner because provide the sufficient wages or remuneration rate of the employees motivate or encourage them that enhance the productivity and performance of the business.
4: Framing Decisions evaluates the workings of the Supreme Court in its decision making capacity that shown the Constitutionality of laws and behaviors related to judgments. Framing decisions also indicates in which situation decision processes and outcomes are rational doesn’t make sense while dealing with decisions made by collective bodies that wrestle with decisions of consequence (Frame, 2012). The Framing Decisions perspective is stated that the U.S. Supreme Court decisions are seldom without controversy, and the judgments and Court’s played proper role in the democracy of the country. Moreover, the Framing Decisions perspective indicates the justices are in principle immune from the vagaries of public opinion that is right statement related to US Court decision process.
In addition, the main argument that refutes the Framing Decisions perspective is inevitably come to the US Supreme Court because of emerging trends in society, and evolving norms and values have always been part of these cases. Moreover, the history of past decisions or judgments indicates the US Court continues to weigh momentous cases on important social issues. Framing Decisions expressed that if the fairly trivial decisions made by individuals then the decision process reason and its outcome is fairly easy to determine (Frame, 2012). I am agree with this assertion because individuals taken fairly decisions on the base of the Constitutionality of laws.
Moreover, the Framing Decision expressed that if dealing with decisions of consequence that have objectively verifiable correct answers, we can decide on the basis of the constitutionality of laws whether the decision process and its outcome are rational. I am agree with that the Constitutionality of laws and behaviors are indicated whether decision processes and outcomes are rational (Frame, 2012).
People living in democracies generally believe that the best way to regulate communities of people is to employ simple majority rule. The simple majority rules means an overall majority, parliamentary systems, and majority to contrast with other types of majority. 1. People living in democracies have the equal right and follow the simple majority rule that is the best way to govern communities of people (Kahne & Westheimer, 2014). In the democracy, the people have equal right and equal freedom that is the best aspect to maintain culture of communities.
In addition, a simple majority is an absolute majority of all electors or people not for only those have right of voted. A simple majority is a weaker than a super majority. In a majority rules nation, super majority must be even better than simple majority. So, that democracy nation like US, super-majority rule remedies some of the deficiencies of simple majority rule. The super majority follow the vote rule their members or people of community required 2/3 supermajority vote for any decision or changes in regulation (Longley, 2015). This kind of limitation or remedy rule related to supermajority creates some of the deficiencies of simple majority rule.
In the context of majority rule community or nation, if communities achieved 100% consensus then it would be great in support of decisions. If communities achieved 100% consensus indicates the all the people of nation or community are agreed or supported the decision of community (Vermeule, 2005). Absence of 100% consensus lead to weaker decisions because it indicates the all the people have not agreed or supported the decision that means some people are dissatisfy or criticize the community decision. Absence of 100% consensus expressed that the decision taken on the basis of supermajority not the simple majority rule.
In an autocratic leadership style, the leader maintains total control and ownership of the decision making. In autocratic decision making, the leader is fully responsible for the outcome of the decision because the leader has not included any other in decision making and has not considered the any suggestions or ideas related to decision (Chen & Tsai, 2015). The leader does not take any suggestion or consider any idea from outside sources and taken decision on the basis of his or her perception or internal information of the problem or situation.
The main advantage of an autocratic decision making is leader able to take fast decision and personal responsible for the result or outcome of decision. In the case of emergency situation, an autocratic leadership style is the best in the context of decision making. The disadvantages of this leadership style are sometimes not providing sufficient outcomes and people not support decision because they are not involved in decision making (Priest & Gass, 2005). Moreover, to remove disadvantage of autocratic leadership style, leader must be good communicator to the information collected and understanding or knowledge of the situation to take the right or beetr decision.
In recent times, autocratic decision making is generally viewed negatively and it has a negative effect on morale of employees. In this leadership style, talented and in-demand employees have leaved a business or the team while mediocre employees have only stay with the leader. In an autocratic leadership style, employees also become more passive aggressive and fell negative or try to find way to create trouble or problem of leader that negatively impact on team performance (Price, 2006). Despite the many negatives, in some specific situations, such as emergency situation it is appropriate for decision makers to operate autocratically.
In many organizations, strong leaders employ a consultative leader decision making style to utilize or capture the team creativity and skill or knowledge of team members. In consultative leader decision making, leader involved team members in decision making through collect their view or ideas and consider them while taken decision. In consultative leader decision making, leader consulting with the team members about the current problem or situation and collect their view or idea then taken his or her decision to ensure the success or outcome of the decision (Plunkett, Attner & Allen, 2007). Consultative style is used by the leader to make an important decision and needs input from people or members those are directly related to problem/situation and impacted by decision. In this style, the leader necessarily makes the decision to work within team members for their views or ideas before taking important or crucial decision.
In the communities and companies, leaders need to employ a consultative leader decision making style to take strong decision with follow the supermajority rule. In addition, communities and companies need to prefer or use of this decision making style by the leader to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the decision. At the same time, consultative decision-making allows leader to utilize creativity of team and usefulness of team members’ ideas before taking final decision. If you have an ineffective leader, then the consultative decision making style can lead to dysfunctional decision making in which the desire for harmony or conformity results (Giacalone & Promislo, 2012). Consultative decision making style can lead to dysfunctional decision making if the group members loss of individual creativity, uniqueness, and independent thinking. Loyalty of group requires team members to avoid raising controversial issues otherwise the consultative decision making style can lead to dysfunctional decision making.
Honeybees are sweetness and light and it producers of honey and beeswax. It teaches us that it is no great wonder that humans have prized these small creatures since ancient times. Honeybees invite us to think of a swarm of bees as a single organ rather than several thousands of individual bees. Working as a swarm of bees (a single organ) allows exceeding individual capacity to gather and process information (Seeley, 2011). Brainless bees make collective decisions and process in an entire swarm that enhanced sweetness, honey and beeswax. It indicates the human able to learn from the bees for being better decision makers and they practice a ‘pure form of democracy’. Similar to a bee, human or leaders do not need to rely on heuristics and have a shared confidence in the strength of their decisions.
In addition, Bees are not infallible and the individual bee makes a rational choice on the wide range of information available to it while it chose to promote or not as the swarm. A bee has not taken short-cut and its final choice is based on approximation rather than consensus that is form of ‘pure democracy’. Bee colony is the example of human democracy as the decision process or deliberation is attempted only by a select few people (those care enough to participate). It means only some bees (human in democracy) that are mere 3% of the swarm population involved in the deliberation or decision process those have been actively involved in the house-hunting process. Moreover, essentially brainless bees make collective decisions that ensured the yield optimal results (Grozinger, Richards & Mattila, 2014). The main key decision making components of this process are the brainless bees collected wide range of information and some bees such as mother queens involved in decision making (around 3% of the swarm population). Honeybees democratic decision making is the centralized decision making their mother queen is not the workers, but the leader those taken decision to lead yield result. The mother queen is supervising the thousands and thousands of worker bees in a colony.
A visual illusion that is also called an optical illusion is characterized through visually perceived images that differ from objective reality. A visual illusion means information gather by the eye is processed in the brain. The eye does not tally with a physical measurement of the visual or optical before processed in the brain (Block & Yuker, 2013). Our senses or brain can be easily trusted on visual or optical illusion but they can be easily fooled. The below picture shown the optical illusions about visual perceptions.
The human visual system evaluates the interactions between visible and the object in our environment, exacts information about them from the world, and makes visual perception possible. Visual perception is related to a dynamic process that goes far outside simply repeating the visual information provided by the retina. Optical illusions or visual illusions involve ambiguous images that force the brain to make decisions that tell individual about how it perceives things. If the eye sees a complex image then the brain has to identify the main figure and relegate the rest of the image to the background (Frith, 2013). These insights can be explained that how individual visual system group and brains played role in separate the characteristics of a complex image in order to recognize objects, which explain the brain’s role in decision making.
The unconscious brain played important role in cognitive activity is undeniable. The unconscious brain played role in the decision making through involved during a cognitive process that might be still a matter of differential opinion. The unconscious mind may reveal itself through its biases and prejudices that impact on our way of thinking and decision making. In this decision making, we are unaware of these unconscious mind predetermines. Unconscious brain plays active role during data gathering and data analysis that is strengths of the conscious brain (Blakemore & Robbins, 2012). Unconscious brain is able to gather data and filters out a great amount of information at a much faster rate than the conscious brain and it can use this information to decision making processes (shown in the below picture). Limitation of unconscious brain is needed the great amount of information to analyze them and taken accurate decision.
(Source: Yirka, 2014)
Malcolm Gladwell in Blink expressed that the unconscious brain may be better suited for making complex and complicated decisions making than the conscious brain. Wilson and Dijksterhuis also indicated that the role of the unconscious brain played major role in decision making because unconscious brain taken decision on the basis of filters out a great amount of information and analyze the data (Albert, Chein & Steinberg, 2013).
Framing Decisions identifies four sets of questions that decisions makers need to address while making decisions of consequence in order to surface potential moral hazard situations:
Consider the interest of all people or team members
Decisions can not harm any of the single person or the single group
Collect the wide information related to problems or issues for analyze the current situation
Consider the view of all people or stakeholders while taking decisions (Frame, 2012)
In the organization, to manage and resolve the conflict successfully different types of techniques, strategies and methods were used by me as the leader of organization. For instance, in resolving conflict, best strategies depending on the organizational size and culture were also developed and implemented. Leader might use the participative, people oriented leadership style and the charismatic leadership style to lead their team members. In the potential moral hazard situation, leaders use the participative leadership style through provides opportunities of employees or people to participate in decision making to effectively control the diverse workforce. In addition, leaders gave the power and the responsibility of the team members in rotation way to develop the team spirit in all members (Ulrich, Smallwood & Sweetman, 2008). Leaders use participative leadership style to manage diversifies team. Leaders consider the view, perception and ideas of the team members or employees while taking their day to day functioning decisions. Leaders focus on maintaining communication or coordination in team members that help it to collect information related to current situation or issue faced by team members.
The City Council of Smithville looking for establishment of a food bank to help suffering families survive at this tough or weak economic time. In recent times, Smithville faced the weak economy issue due to this around 2,000 families have unemployed heads-of-households and are at or below the poverty line and the overall unemployment rate in Smithville is 12%. A budget review of the city indicates that the city council has the financial resources to support 2,000 families, with an average of four members per family, for a period of 18 months. So, that the city council should be holding the position of a food bank because the city has able to the financial resources to support 2,000 families and around 2,000 families have unemployed heads-of-households in Smithville. Holding the position of a food bank is beneficial of unemployed or poor people as food bank helped them to survive in the city (Silverstein, 2009).
On the basis of the liberal and conservative viewpoints, the merits and shortcomings of the establishment of a food bank is the city have less financial resource, so it only able to support the unemployed families for a period of 18 months. It is not a long term project and after 18 months the unemployed people faced the difficulty to survive in the city. The main issue faced by the public policy makers while dealing with both big and little problems is the availability of financial and other resources to run program or policy for long time duration (Tedlow, 2003).
The main pros are Future Vehicles Corporation (FVC) is able to improve its performance and able to face domestic and international competition through entering the driverless car in the commercial market. The cons are FVC are needed to taken government permission and needed the large fund or resources to entering the commercial market (Zentes, Morschett & Schramm-Klein, 2008).
The SWOT Analysis
New or innovative product
A strong brand name
Expertise and skill
New in commercial market
Low or no market share
No brand loyalty and weak financial position
Lack of employee experience
Needed huge fund and resources to enter in commercial market
A growing market.
Increased consumer spending.
Legal changes that make selling driverless car abroad (internationally) easier
Driverless car is need of market
Taxation rules which reduce the firm's or consumer income
A change in consumer habits which makes the firm's products less appealing to the target market
(Source: Xiao, 2011)
On the basis of the above described pros and cons and SWOT analysis, it can be stated that the CEO need information related to finance and resources required to entering the commercial market and delivering the best services of the customers in the market.
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