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Telecommunication Engineering Reliability: Microwave Radio System

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Consider the system shown in Figure 1, which is a model of an active redundant generator at a main exchange of Telecommunication Company.

 

  1. Assume that the reliability of each subsystem (or component) i has the reliability of Ri.

Calculate the reliability of the overall system RS as a function of Ri.

  1. If the reliability of component i at time tis Ri(t)=e-λit, what is the reliability function of the overall system at time t?
  2. Evaluate the mean time to failure (MTTF) of the overall system as a function of λiusing the reliability function in part (b).
  3. Calculate the failure rate of the overall system with exponential reliability. Hint use binomial distribution.
  4. What is the mean time before failure (MTBF) of the above system?

 

Answer:

Reliability

If the components are in parallel, system performs if any one component remains operational

 If there are n components in parallel, where the reliability of the i-th component is denoted by ri , the system reliability is

Rp=1-(1-r1) (1-r2)… (1-rn)

For our case

Assume that the reliability of each subsystem (or component) i has the reliability of Ri. Calculate the reliability of the overall system RS as a function of Ri.

RS=1-(1-RI) (1-RI)

RS=1-(1-RI) 2

  1. If the reliability of component i at time tis Ri (t) =e-λit, what is the reliability function of the overall system at time t?

Qi (t) = 1-e-λit

 f (t) =   =   = λe -λit

  1. Evaluate the mean time to failure (MTTF) of the overall system as a function of λiusing the reliability function in part (b).

Mean Time to Failure, MTTF= dt = 1/λ

=1/λ

  1. Calculate the failure rate of the overall system with exponential reliability. Hint use binomial distribution.

Qi (t) = 1-e-λit

  1. What is the mean time before failure (MTBF) of the above system?

= dt = 1/λ

Question 2 Digital Microwave Radio System

A point-to-point digital microwave radio system is required by a bank to link the LANs of two of its branches at 2.048 Mbps transmission speed. The handbook delivered by the manufacturer has dimensioned the entire radio terminal with the reliability:  MTBF (mean time between failures): 100,000 hours MTTR (mean time to repair): 2 hours (equipment only).  The radio path availability was calculated for ???=10-8 and found to be 99.999% for the average worst case. The system configuration is shown in Figure 1.   

  1. Calculate the overall system availability

Availability =MTBF/ (MTBF+MTTR)

=99.998%

  1. Draw the reliability diagram of the system   
  1. How would you increase the availability of the system required by the bank?  

FINDING AND IMPLIMENTING THE MEAN TIME TO REPAIR (MTTR)

Mean time to repair (MTTR) is the typical time necessary to deduce and mend failed equipment and return it to standard working settings [7]. It is a fundamental technical measure of the maintainability of equipment and repairable parts. Maintenance time is referred to as the time interval between the beginning of the incident and when the system is returned to production (i.e. time when the equipment is inactive). This comprises of the notification time, investigative and problem-solving time, cool down time, reassembly, configuration, standardization, experiment time, back to production, etc. It usually does not incorporate lead-time for parts. Mean time to repair eventually depicts how well an organization can react to a technical itch and restore it.

  1. The useful life of the equipment shown in Figure 2 is 15 years. Calculate the reliability of the one radio terminal at the end of it life.
 

Microwave system

Question 3 High Seed Connectivity

Access to the Internet has arguably become an essential service. However, the quality of the service varies widely in Australia. Multiple governments had promised (and begun to deliver) a high-speed connectivity throughout Australia via the NBN. Discuss and briefly explain the NBN technology. The discussion must be based on research findings, e.g. reference must be made of at least two journals.

The NBN (National Broadband Network) is an Australian domestic extensive open-access data linkage project. It consists of both wired and radio communication mechanisms rolled out and activated by NBN Co Limited. Retail service providers (RSPs), normally Internet service suppliers, sign agreement with NBN for the right to use the network and sell secure internet access to consumers [4].Logics for this countrywide telecommunications set-up project encompassed replacing the current copper cable telephony system that is approaching extinction, and the swiftly rising demand for internet access[2]. As initially planned, wired networks would have delivered up to 100 Mbit/s, later amplified to 1 Gbit/s; after the election of the Abbott government in 2013 this was reduced to a minimum of 25 Mbit/s [5].

There are 4 types of NBN technologies used namely:

  • Fibre to the premises (FTTP):A fibre optic cable transmits the NBN signal from the interchange, over the adjoining fibre node and to a mounted link device on your properties.
  • Fibre to the node (FTTN):A fibre optic cable transfers the NBN signal from the interchange to the adjoining node, then depend on the copper cabling to transmit it to your property.
  • Fibre to the building (FTTB):This selection is usually used to link apartment. The signal runs over the fibre optic cable to the structure’s communications room, and from there the existing network technology carries it to the individual apartments.
  • Hybrid fibre coaxial (HFC): A current ‘pay TV’ or cable network is utilized to transmit the NBN signal from the bordering fibre node to a connected device on your properties. 

Question 4 Functions of a Telecommunication Network

The functions of a telecommunication network, whether it is wired or wireless, are specified by the size of its coverage area and traffic carrying capacity. On the other hand, the performance of the network is specified by its quality of service.  

  1. What limits the size of the coverage area of a telephone exchange?  

The congestion of consumers in a zone that steered to the usage of cells in communication interference impacts were not as a result of the distance between zones, but to the proportion of the distance between areas to the mast power (radius) of the regions[8]. By decreasing the radius of a region by 50%, service suppliers may perhaps increase the quantity of potential consumers in a region fourfold. Systems centered on regions with a one-kilometer range would have one hundred times more frequencies than systems with regions 10 kilometers range. Assumption led to the decision that by decreasing the range to a few hundred meters, many calls may perhaps be served [9].The cellular concept uses adjustable low-power intensities that permit cells to be sized based on the subscriber concentration and demand of a given region. As the populace grows, cells can be added to accommodate that growth. Frequencies used in one cell constellation can be used again in other cells.

What limits the traffic carrying capacity of a telephone exchange?  

  • Traffic Load Measurement

Traffic load is the ratio of call arrivals in a definite period of time to the average amount of time taken to service each call during that period. These measurement units are based on Average Hold Time (AHT).

  • Grade of Service

Grade of Service is defined as the likelihood that calls will be blocked while attempting to seize circuits

  • Type of traffic (modem versus traditional voice)

Apparent versus offered load

 

References

[1] Birolini, Alessandro. (2017). Reliability Engineering: Theory and Practice. Springer Verlag.

[2] Brown, Damien. “NBN Now 10 Times Faster.” The Mercury 13 Aug. 2010. ‹https://www.themercury.com.au/article/2010/08/13/165435_todays-news.html›.

[3] Carmines, E. G., & Zeller, R. A. (2008). Reliability and validity assessment. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publ. 

[4] Edwards, K., Rebecca G., Ratul M., and David W. (2010). “Advancing the State of Home Networking.” Communications of the ACM 54.6 .62-71.

[5] Neumann, K.-H. (2010). Structural models for NBN deployment. Bad Honnef: WIK Wissenschaftliches Institut fu [section] [u.a.

[6] Reliability Engineering Conference for the Electric Power Industry, & Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. (n.d.). Reliability. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

[7] Tobias, P. A. (2012). Applied Reliability. CRC Press.

[8] Tucker, Rodney S. (2010). “Broadband Facts, Fiction and Urban Myths.” Telecommunications Journal of Australia 60.3: 43.1 to 43.15. 

[9] Wilken, R., Michael A., and Bjorn N. (2011). “Broadband in the Home Pilot Study: Suburban Hobart.” Telecommunications Journal of Australia 61.1: 5.1-16.

[10] Zafar, M. Shaqfeh, M.-S. Alouini, and H. Alnuweiri, “A suboptimal scheme for multi-user scheduling in Gaussian broadcast channels,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 136–140, Feb. 2015

OR

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