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The Analysis Of The Communication Protocol

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1.What is a Protocol in the Context of Communication Network? Describe the purpose of Protocol analysis. Your answer should Contain Description of a real-time situation where Protocol analyser can be used. List any three popular protocol analyzer solutions currently available in the Market. 

2.You are asked to visit a Pharmaceutical Company to help troubleshoot some Network Connectivity Problems. The Company’s network consists of 11 Workstations connected by a single 24 port hub. The Company Manager describes the problem as consistent and explains that every Morning there is a five minute delay to Connect to the main Server. The Manager Indicates that every user on the network has the same problem. Using your Protocol analyzer where would you tap into this network and why? Explain how this network is different to Modern Networks. 

3.As a Network administrator for a medium sized company, you have been asked to design a network by utilizing private IP address. The Network will span six buildings with a router in each building to join the networks. Currently, the Company has approximately a total of 1,000 workstations in the following locations:

Building A - 200 workstations
Building B - 125 workstations
Building C - 135 workstations
Building D - 122 workstations
Building E - 312 workstations

4.Explain the purpose of QoS on a TCP/IP network. Define the basic Purpose and differentiate between IP precedence, TOS, ECN and Diffserv Functionalities.


1.The communication protocol is basically a set of rules that deals with two or more entities in the communication system (Manbachi et al., 2014). The entities transfer the data through a variety of physical quantities. The protocol or the set rules provides the definitions of the semantics and the syntax for the communications. It also helps in recovery from the error. The protocol is imposed by either the hardware or the software or by collaboration of both the hardware and the software. The protocols are available I the telecommunication network at various levels.  There has been a set of rules that are defined for the hardware level. The OSI model also has a set of rules at every level. The protocols are recognized and followed by both ends of the connection.

The analysis of the protocol is an experimental method. It is used for collecting the evidences of the transitional states. The system is generally concerned with the utilization of the methods in the functions for the calculations. The analyzer is basically a program or a collection of the hardware that are traffic passing or logging at any part of the digital network. The “network probe” is an analyzer of the protocols that can monitor the real time network traffic. The analyzer is used for identifying the sources for which the network lags.        

2.The hub has been an easy tool to hook up anywhere in-line with the server (Khalaf et al., 2017). This is because of the packets that are arriving at a single point would generally spread over the other parts of the network. The traffic that is being transferred can be observed by all the ports in the hub. The network where only the hubs are present and there is no switch or router in the network, the data would be visible to all the nodes in the network. The analyzer then could be plugged in at any point on the network. In the provided scenario the pharmaceutical firm comprises of 11 workstation that are connected to a hub consisting of 24 ports. And in addition to this to tap into the network a switch is to be used. This can be done as the packets can be transmitted only to the devices that are connected to the port with their MAC addresses. The machines could be connected with the help of the switch and with their MAC addresses.


The benefits of the switch would be:

  • With the help of the switch any type of hub can split and connected to various server ports.
  • The switch has capabilities to monitor the network.
  • The real scenarios of the modern world has made the switches different and very essential to use.

The following differences could be identified in between the distance routing vector and the link state routing (Garcia-Luna-Aceves, 2014):

The link state routing is faster than the distance vector in converging.

The distance vector is more robust than the link state.


The link state is simpler than the distance vector.

The infrastructural requirements of the link state is more than the distance vector.

The distance vector uses the Bellman-Ford algorithm. While the link state uses the shortest path first algorithm.

The link state supports the class less as well as the class full subnets, whereas the distance vector only supports the class-full routine.

The link state can create neighbor table, topology table and the routing table whereas the distance vector can create only the routing table.

The distance vector has lower memory requirements than the link state.

The configuration of the distance vector is easier than the link state.

The example of the link state are IS-IS, OSPF. The example of the distance vector are IGRP and RIP.


Figure: Distance Vector and Link State

Source: (created by Author)

3.Class subnet mask =

Binary notation = 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000.

The 1s in the subnet mask are bits that designate the network address.

The 0s in the subnet mask are host address bits.


Number of hosts in the subnet = 16777214.

Sum of 2048 possible subnets = 1111111111111.

255=11111111 number of subnet masks is the standard one.

Subnet mask for the network = or /21

The binary address =11111111.11111111.11111000.00000000.

Total number of 2048 possible host IP addresses in every subnet. =1111111111111.

Hence, number of IP addresses per subnet used for hosts over the network is 2048 - 2 = 2046.Thus the total number of allowable hosts technically possible is 2046. Therefore, it would not be a problem even if the number of host per network is more than 1024 per building.

4.The QoS is the Quality of Service of a TCP/IP network (Beloglazov & Buyya, 2013). It is the set of rule which sets the priority of the different type of operations on the network. It assigns the particular task to the particular points on the network. In addition to it provides the order of priority according to the MAC addresses of the systems. The QoS also monitors the system performances.

There are various kind of header fields. IP precedence is one of the header fields. IP precedence is a field in the IP data packets. It basically provides the status of the packet. The IP precedence provides the order of the priority of the packets. The IP precedence are defined as following:

111- Network Control

110- Internetwork Control

101- Critic/ECP

011- Flash Override


010- Immediate



In addition to this, the TOS means the type of Services. It is also one of the header fields. But unlike the IP Precedence it provides the type of services for the data packets. It is 8 bits while the IP Precedence is only 3 bits.

Other header files are the ECN and the Diffserv fields. The ECN is the explicit congestion notification. It provides the congestion notifications for the data packets. It consists of only 0 or 1 bits. Diffserv is the differentiated services of the computer networks. It basically performs the task of differentiating the types of services of the networks and the data packets. IT is usually 7-2 bits.



Beloglazov, A., & Buyya, R. (2013). Managing overloaded hosts for dynamic consolidation of virtual machines in cloud data centers under quality of service constraints. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 24(7), 1366-1379.

Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J. (2014, September). Name-based content routing in information centric networks using distance information. In Proceedings of the 1st international conference on Information-centric networking (pp. 7-16). ACM.

Hemmati, E., & Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J. (2015, September). A new approach to name-based link-state routing for information-centric networks. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Information-Centric Networking (pp. 29-38). ACM.

Khalaf, A. M., El Salam, M. S. A., & Ahmed, K. A. (2017, February). Investigation of different ethernet wiring and different frame size to enhance the performance of LAN. In Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), 2017 19th International Conference on (pp. 787-796). IEEE.

Manbachi, M., Nasri, M., Shahabi, B., Farhangi, H., Palizban, A., Arzanpour, S., ... & Lee, D. C. (2014). Real-time adaptive VVO/CVR topology using multi-agent system and IEC 61850-based communication protocol. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 5(2), 587-597.

Prete, L. R., Schweitzer, C. M., Shinoda, A. A., & de Oliveira, R. L. S. (2014, June). Simulation in an SDN network scenario using the POX Controller. In Communications and Computing (COLCOM), 2014 IEEE Colombian Conference on (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

TamasSelicean, D., Pop, P., & Steiner, W. (2015, April). Timing analysis of rate constrained traffic for the TTEthernet communication protocol. In Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC), 2015 IEEE 18th International Symposium on (pp. 119-126). IEEE.

Wu, J., Chen, L., Feng, Y., Zheng, Z., Zhou, M. C., & Wu, Z. (2013). Predicting quality of service for selection by neighborhood-based collaborative filtering. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, 43(2), 428-439.


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