The ecological niche defined in terms of the functional role of organisms in the context of their behaviour, physiological responses and ecological adaptations. Indeed, the niche constitutes the entire living conditions warranted for the survival of organisms in the ecological environment. The evidence based research literature describes communities in terms of interconnections between niches following their mutual association and activities influencing the survival.
My personal niche in USA dominated by humans and utilizes abiotic and biotic resources to facilitate reproduction and survival. However, my actual realized Hutchinsonian niche based on the environmental adaptation on land with the effective utilization of available resources required for existence and sustainability. The adaptive zone in my own niche defined with the opportunities for acquiring food, water and other miscellaneous living resources with minimal competition. However, the arctic region niche comprises of polar bears, snowy owls, lemmings, foxes and geese surviving under conditions of freezing weather, scarce food and other miscellaneous resources. However, the region suffers climatic changes followed by sustained interactions between oceanic and land surface atmospheres (ACIA, 2005, p. 1018).
The research literature describes the existence of tough evergreen vegetation at elevated altitudes to facilitate existence of species (Pidwirny, 2014, p. 257). Indeed, the plant adaptations including longer generation times and life spans, and clonal reproduction enhance the survival rate of species across arctic region. The adaptability of evergreen conifers and herbaceous plants in tolerating freezing temperatures acquaint them with sustainability and growth that proportionately assists the survival of other species across the region.
The personal niche acquired with biotic environment including herbivores, animals and humans living synergistically in moderate climate. The plentiful food resources and mutually beneficial relationships between humans and other species attribute to their interdependence that facilitates optimal growth and survival across the subcontinent. Indeed, the human adaptability across Arctic region attributes to the effective utilization of latest tools and techniques for exploiting food resources and surviving under extreme climatic conditions (Cohen, 2011, p. 205).
The biggest challenge for humans in the arctic region attributes to the extreme arctic climate and limited resources for acquiring protection against the weather fluctuations. Furthermore, the climatic variations including reduction in rivers’ ice, melting glaciers and alterations in oceanic salinity affecting natural ecosystem add to the difficulties of humans struggling for survival across the region (Gjørv et al., 2014, p. 114).
The cultural adaptations across the personal niche relate to the effective acquisition of characteristics including inventiveness, sociability and imitativeness for adapting in the terrestrial habitats. However, the cultural adaptations evolved from living in Arctic region include the patterns of women empowerment, population growth and evolution of technical and social complexities leading to stabilization of subsistence systems across the region.
The survival across various niches indeed depends on climatic, social and physiological adaptations by human population. The mutually beneficial relationship between various species assists in overcoming the environmental changes, thereby leading to their survival and sustainability under challenging climatic conditions.
ACIA. (2005). Arctic Climate Impact Assessment - Scientific Report. USA: Cambridge University Press.
Cohen, Y. A. (2011). Human Adaptation: The Biosocial Background. USA: Transaction Publishers.
Gjørv, G.H., Bazely, D., Goloviznina, M., & Tanentzap, A.J. (2014). Environmental and Human Security in the Arctic. New York: Routledge.
Pidwirny, M. (2014). Understanding Physical Geography. Canada: Our Planet Earth Publishing.
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