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The Ethical Marketing Research And Cookie Law Add in library

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Question :

Having read the above quote, via secondary research, write a literature review (comparing and contrasting different authors’ views on the subject), that addresses the research ethics that should be employed, and why it is so important; pay particular attention to the ‘Cookie Law’ of 2011 and the subject of informed consent).



Answer :


Zhuang et al. (2012) suggested that ethics of marketing allows the marketers in attaining standards and principles that helps in building acceptable conduct in the marketplace. In these days of digital marketing, brings new challenges in marketing environment. Wright et al. (2013) argued that confidentiality, privacy and the reliability for distribution of products or services and the collection of data became the major issues in terms of digital marketing in the world. Witkowski & Reddy (2010) opined that in this digital world people tries to hidden their identity. However, their activities as well as intentions are not carrying out and identity is published in the internet.

This study tries to generate the information related business ethics especially for the digital marketing ethics.


Literature Review

Marketing Ethics

According to Wooldridge & Kuntze (2012), ethics of marketing addressed the standards and principle for the business marketers in marketplace. On the other hand Siems et al. (2010) argued that marketing ethics recognizing the distinction between descriptive, normative and analytic in the marketplace. However, Murphy (2002) suggested that normative ethics from the viewpoint of marketing defended and formulate the basic norms. On the other hand, Kerin et al. (2013) cited that descriptive ethics provides the scientific study in terms of treating marketing ethical issues such as online consumer behaviour, response to the Smartphone, social media marketing, customer engagement, etc. Apart from that, Eagle (2015) acknowledged that ethics of analytics marketing allowed the marketer on business environment to examine basic concept of ethical marketing and its norms.

                                                                      Figure 1: Framework for understanding ethical behaviour

                                                                                  (Source: Celuch & Saxby 2013, pp- 166)

Bush et al. (2013) argued that approaches of marketing ethics are the most important and effective part for developing business as well as maintain success in business. According to Beck et al. (2010), majority of organisation in business sector face challenges from the point of view of ethical miss conduct and illegal behaviour from the management or their staffs. Celuch & Saxby (2013) opined that normative marketing ethics is the appropriate method of maintaining ethical behaviour in business. The theories of normative provide the traditional ethics and right duty based ethics to the business organisation in terms of maintaining ethical dilemma. Ferrell et al. (2013) proposed that philosophy of ethics from the point of view of marketing helps in characterising the bounded moral relativism and the heavily relies in business ethics for the marketers. Contextualist model of ethical marketing helps in adopting orientation for marketing that bring the opportunity in becoming an ethical innovator for the marketers in business.

McEachern (2013) contended that reduce or solve the ethical issue in business creates opportunities for future development. Virtue ethics including the Aristotelian roots is the most applicable format of normative ethical theory to the variables of marketing mix. On the other hand, BOONE (2012) elaborated on virtue ethics is the theory of normative ethics in business that received substantial attention for business marketers in the marketplace. Apart from that, regarding virtue ethics in business, Kovac-Znidersic, R., & Maric (2013) proposed that framework of virtue ethics integrate the theory related marketing and displayed applicability within the marketplace. In accordance to Poon (2012) virtue ethics is the difficult operation that informed marketing from individual judgement in terms of making the appropriate ethical decisions. The articles related to marketing ethics written by Sharma & Baoku (2012), demonstrated that theories of normative received substantial attention in terms of Cognitive Moral Development (CMD). In this article, it has been utilized that educated female marketers score highest record on CMD and make the market of an organisation more advance rather than earlier in moral reasoning. Apart from that, these articles also demonstrated that CMD is 85 percent appropriate in terms of marketing ethics. Related studies of virtual commitment by Roy (2012) provide the information about normative marketing that theory of virtue ethics builds trust and commitment from the point of view of relationship marketing. It is also determines that related keys of relationship marketing building blocks have been maintained with high corporate standards as well as high communicating activity with the stakeholders of business. Apart from that, Tadajewski & Jones (2012) examined trust and commitment in relationship marketing from the point of view of virtue ethics helps the business marketers in avoiding malevolent behaviour. On the contrary, according to the study of Zee et al. (2010), virtue ethics for marketing is exhibited greater ethical sensitivity perspective of social research profession in ethical norms.


                                                                           Figure 2: Framework of Value Based Marketing

                                                                                      (Source: Roy, 2012, pp- 75) 

Several articles in relation to marketing ethics examined the ethical issues that deals with the target market, segmentation or positioning the market. Majority of organisation in business environment manufacture dangerous products and provides unethical behaviour such as high price in low commodity in the business marketplace. Target of vulnerable consumers was a most important unethical marketing activity in the business marketplace. Sribnyak (2012) discussed that in business market, organisation must accept moral responsibility for their customer targeting strategies. With the same view Poon (2012) noted that moral responsibility is the important part of business and marketers need to adopt strategies for collective impact that combined the effort of segmentation.

As opined by Celuch & Saxby (2013), majority of organisation in the marketplace produced harmful products in both targeting customer and segmenting the market place for increasing future sustainability. From the point of view of Eagle (2015), organisation has to make programs for targeting vulnerable including cognitively, socially, motivationally, physically, etc in terms of treat the customers fairly. However, in terms of treating consumers fairly, Wooldridge & Kuntze (2012) proposed to adopt doctrine targeting consumer liability patterned that is the method of accountability.


In the article of Wright et al. (2013), it has been understand that there are several unethical behaviour in the marketing such as online consumer behaviour, social media marketing, sales manager, target marketing, etc. From the point of view of unethical behaviour in marketing, Kerin et al. (2013) acknowledged that action of disciplinary occurred due to poor performance by sales persons of an organisation in business marketplace. As argued by Siems et al. (2010), low performance from staffs in an organisation generates disciplinary action and it considered as a unethical behaviour. On the contrary, Bush et al. (2013) represented that unethical behaviour in marketing proposed higher level of marketing executive beyond attribution and legal responsibilities in terms of commitment for serve to the consumers. From that point of view of social media advertising, Saxby (2013) opined that image advertising and the conclude factors related digital media marketing is the basic of an ethical technique. However, Sribnyak (2012) argued that image advertising does not undermine the autonomy.

Many articles are dealing with the ethical issues in business marketplace. However, the articles of McEachern (2013) are the best approach of analysing ethical dilemma in relation to social marketing. In the distrust of commercial marketing, misbehaving regarding the ethics is the key of ethical dilemma in social marketing framework. Eagle (2015) depicted that there are several ethical criticisms in communication marketing such as deceptive, manipulative, untruthful, offensive, etc. Wright et al. (2013) concerned that from the point of view of social marketing anxieties have been identified about the used tactic in social marketing including offensive, untruthful, unfair, etc. On the other hand, Siems et al. (2010) cited that use of public money in documentaries fund showed the government policies are not actively profound. Therefore, Celuch & Saxby (2013) argued that these types of activity are not appropriate from the point of view of social marketing. Therefore, it highlighted the perennial distrust in accordance to the intervention of government on the ground of nannies and intrusion that is unwarranted.

There are several article related to ethical guideline for market. However, the article of Wooldridge & Kuntze (2012) related to ethical guideline practice for marketing demonstrated the critical thinking about marketing ethics. Bothe of these two research paper abut marketing ethics provide guideline for maintaining the law of ethical behaviour in marketing and act that help organization in serving products to customer in ethical manner. According to Siems et al. (2010), superfluity and the total redundancy is the key concept of ethical marketing. However, Sribnyak (2012) suggested that ethical marketing concerned that organisation in business sector need to involve act or obey of law that helps business in maintaining ethics that completely undistinguished. On the other hand, Kerin et al. (2013) claimed that readily exposed and total redundant is the method of possibility marketing ethics. However, the primary view point of McEachern (2013) demonstrated that in order to create high prospective in ethical marketing need to reduce or address the possibility of misconceptions. As argued by Wright et al. (2013) more narrowly proactive and circumscribed s the foregoing quotations for achieving effectiveness of ethical marketing concept to business organisations. Though Bush et al. (2013), carefully discussed that refuted and rejected dissections is the part of criticism marketing ethics. Guidance of pragmatic behaviour and content of conceptual in ethical marketing are able to bring distinctive as well as new offer for the marketer in business environment.

Apart from that, Celuch & Saxby (2013) examined that empirical corroboration in terms of surveying staffs or customers in marketing practitioner members, generally classified with the consistent of principles of ethics along with the obey of act as well as law in relation to ethical dilemma. Wooldridge & Kuntze (2012) described that good ethical dilemma is the method of good business. However, Kerin et al. (2013) argued that understanding of consumer behaviour and fairly serve to the customer according to their demand based on segment and target strategy is able to develop a good business and run the business for long term.


On the contrary, Bush et al. (2013) acknowledged that negative publicity and prospect of boycotts create negative impact on consumer’s mind and does not maintain ethical dilemma for business. Saxby (2013) suggested that unethical conduct is able to view the potentiality of business in marketplace. In accordance to the McEachern (2013) unethical activity generates economical loss for the business organisation in market place. According to this view, Sribnyak (2012) depicted that if the unethical activity is not the interest of the organisation, the governing redundant that activity. Ethical prescription such as act, law, etc is able to address the activities of ethical dilemma in business. Saxby (2013) argued that recourse of law helps the business organisation in establishing he consensus. Normal commerce under the law of democratic closely reconciles the render of contemporary management of marketing ethics to the business organisations. Kerin et al. (2013) demonstrated that ethics plays the most important role in marketing and ensure the continuity of future success as well as claimed alignment. Bush et al. (2013) acknowledge that majority of contribution of marketing ethics provides wide range of descriptive behaviour along with the contribution of empirical research.

As opined by Wooldridge & Kuntze (2012), model of ethical decision making potentially identifies the significant of enlarging opportunities for marketers from the point of view of cultural factors, social factors, makeup individually, etc. Siems et al. (2010) showed that individual differ in terms of making the decision for marketing ethics extent the opportunity of individual engage in ethical behaviour. In order to maintain ethical marketing, organisations in business sector need to include the functionality of organisational culture, corporate policy, professional codes, punishment for bad working activity, rewards for good effort to organisational activity, etc.

For strict marketing decision making of an organisation in marketplace, need to apply the normative marketing ethics.

Cookie Law

Cookie law was first introduced in May 2011 by the directive of European Union (EU). In order to maintain privacy and electronics communication regulation in business, majority of organisation comply the law of cookie in their digital marketing process. Cookie law allows the participant in maintaining piece of privacy legislation in the websites during digital marketing for business organisation in order to get consent information from the visitors of the websites for marketers as well as retrieved data or information from any computer or Smartphone or tablet. Dwyer (2011) demonstrated that, majority of organisation in business sector uses Cookie Law of 2011 in their digital marketing for sharing or storing information of the visitors in order to maintain ethical marketing especially for digital marketing age. There are several technologies that used by the marketers in terms of maintaining cookie law in websites such as HTML5 (Hyper Text Mark-up Language version five), Flash, etc. From the point of view of business, cookie law is most important due to comply the risk enforcement actions in business. Pollard (2014) argued that non-compliance of cookie law in business perhaps more serious consequence instead of enforcement. Raimond, O., & Schapira (2011) cited that implementation of cookie in digital marketing allows the organisation in storing little bits of information in their own browser that make wide user experience. Some cookies collected information and created behavioural profiles of consumers for organisations.


There are many articles wrote by several authors that provides the information and knowledge about rules of using cookies in digital marketing. Sribnyak (2012) argued that using cookies, organisation of business sector can generates a clear understanding about customers and make a fundamental of consideration level with details overview. Cookies demonstrate the current level of customer awareness for that particular company using several options that available for managing the limitations. Roy (2012) argued that, using the rules and policy of cookie, organisation could build 41 percent awareness of their customers. In this research paper, it has been also identified that there were several terms and conditions for implementation of cookie law in digital marketing. For instance, resolving problem, auditing of cookies, etc. Poon (2012) considered that variety of consumer initiative including specific highlight in terms of using cookies help the area of achieving success. According to McEachern (2013) flash cookies or the local shared objects are the applied regulations of cookies. There were several types of cookies such as session’s cookies, first and third party cookies and persistent cookies (, 2015).

Session cookies allowed websites of business marketers in order to create a link with the actions during browser session (, 2015). This type of cookie plays variety of role such as remembering information of visitors around the browser site.

On the other hand, Persistent cookies stored the information of preferred site of visitors including choice (, 2015). Boone (2012) opined that first and third party cookies help visitors in displaying URL window.


This study demonstrated that critical analysis about marketing ethics. Through this assignment, analyst is researching about the ethical consideration of marketing from the point of view of digital marketing concepts such as online consumer behaviour, social media marketing, etc. Describe about the cookie law in terms of business. Demonstrate the use information based on cookie that make organisation able to target a particular market for achieving high market share and generating wide range of profits.




Boone, L. (2012). Contemporary marketing, 2013 update.  Cengage: learning custom

Kerin, R., Hartley, S., & Rudelius, W. (2013). Marketing. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

McEachern, M. (2013). Contemporary issues in green and ethical marketing. Berlin: Springer.


Beck, J., Lazer, W., & Schmidgall, R. (2010). Can an Ethical Situation Be “Not a Question of Ethicsâ€Â?. Journal Of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 19(2), 157-170.

Bush, V., Smith, R., & Bush, A. (2013). Ethical Dilemmas and Emergent Values Encountered by Working College Students: Implications for Marketing Educators. Journal Of Marketing Education, 35(2), 107-118. doi:10.1177/0273475313491577

Celuch, K., & Saxby, C. (2013). Counterfactual Thinking and Ethical Decision Making: A New Approach to an Old Problem for Marketing Education. Journal Of Marketing Education, 35(2), 155-167.

Dwyer, S. (2011). Cookie Cutter Shark (Isistius sp.) Bites on Cetaceans, with Particular Reference to Killer Whales (Orca) (Orcinus orca). Aquatic Mammals37(2), 111-138

Ferrell, O., Crittenden, V., Ferrell, L., & Crittenden, W. (2013). Theoretical development in ethical marketing decision making. AMS Rev, 3(2), 51-60.

Kovac-Znidersic, R., & Maric, D. (2013). Gender differences and influence on ethical behaviour of consumers. Marketing, 44(1), 29-38.

Pollard, M. (2014). More than a cookie cutter: the global influence of European competition law.Journal Of European Competition Law & Practice.

Poon, P. (2012). Ethical and Social Issues in Global Marketing. Journal Of Global Marketing, 25(1), 1-2

Raimond, O., & Schapira, B. (2011). Internal DLA generated by cookie random walks on Z. Electron. Commun. Probab.16(0).

Roy, D. (2012). Promoting Active Learning of Ethical Issues in Marketing Communications Using Debates. Marketing Education Review, 22(1), 73-76. Sharma, G., & Baoku, L. (2012). E-Marketing on Online Social Networks and Ethical Issues. International Journal Of Online Marketing, 2(4), 1-14.

Siems, F., Bruton, J., & Moosmayer, D. (2010). Integrating Core Marketing Ethical Values Into Relationship Marketing. Journal Of Relationship Marketing, 9(2), 68-82.

Sribnyak, O. (2012). Mini Cooper: Current Marketing Strategy, Digital Marketing Approach, the Brand & Ethical Values. Bulletin - Prague College Centre For Research And Interdisciplinary Studies, 2012(2).

Tadajewski, M., & Jones, D. (2012). Scientific marketing management and the emergence of the ethical marketing concept. Journal Of Marketing Management, 28(1-2), 37-61. ‘

Witkowski, T., & Reddy, S. (2010). Antecedents of ethical consumption activities in Germany and the United States. Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), 18(1), 8-14. Wooldridge, B., & Kuntze, R. (2010). Publish or Perish and Innovative Teaching: Combining the Two to Explore Ethical Behaviors. Marketing Education Review, 20(2), 143-148.

Wright, S., Dinsmore, J., & Kellaris, J. (2013). How Group Loyalties Shape Ethical Judgment and Punishment Preferences. Psychology & Marketing, 30(3), 203-210.

Zee, Y., Chan, S., Harris, J., & Jayson, G. (2010). The ethical and scientific case for phase 2C clinical trials. The Lancet Oncology, 11(5), 410-411.

Zhuang, G., Herndon, N., & Tsang, A. (2012). The Impact of Buyers on Salespersons’ Ethical Judgment and Behavioral Intention to Practice Gray Marketing. Journal Of Global Marketing, 25(1), 57-78.

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