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The Genetically Modified Organisms

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Question :

Discuss about the Genetically Modified Crops ?
 
 

Answer :

Introduction:

Genetically modified crops (GMCs) undertakes the alteration of the DNA of the plants that leads to the formation of the seeds that have better resistance towards pests, chemical treatments, diseases, unfavourable climate and temperature (Beckrich 2013). Increasing demand with scarcity of the biotic components of earth has pressurized much the usage of GMCs. Still farmers lack in updating themselves with this updated and innovative technology (Thomson 2008).

This research report undertakes study on the extent of willingness by the Canadian Union of farmers in adopting the GMOs and GMCs on the basis of existing experiences and personal background.

This report outlines the resultant and discussion on the level of acceptance and willingness for knowledge regarding the genetically modified organisms by the farmers of the Canadian Union.

Quantitative analysis has been conducted on the basis of surveys in order to determine and study the results based on existing patterns. Two different study has been undertaken one determining the extent of willingness for the adoption of genetically modified organisms for the crop production and another undertakes the level of interest shown by the farmers for trying the genetically modified organisms and organic farming for their crop production (Manzanares et al. 2017).

Resultant from the analysis on willingness determines that only 16.5% of the participants were strongly in favour of the usage of GMOs (Refer Table 1 of Appendix). 32.7% of the target participants showed neutral approach toward implementation of GMOs. 15.3% of the participants strongly disagreed on the implementation of the GMOs for the production of their crops. Besides this, 10.2 % of the participants disagreed probably on the regulation of genetically modified organisms for the production of the crops and 25.3% of the participants agreed probably on the effectual undertaking of the genetically modified crops for growing their crops on commercial scale. Furthermore, 14.3% of those participants who carries non-farming job experience previously agreed and 24.3% of such participants agreed probably for the implementation. 16.5% and 11.2% of these farmers strongly agreed and probably agreed for the undertaking of GMOs. 33.2% of this category farmers were neutral. Besides this, 10.9% of farmers who undertakes organic farming in their regular practice strongly agreed for the GMOs practicing and 19.3% of the participants probably agreed. 27.0% and 13.0% of such farmers strongly disagreed and probably disagreed for the implementation of GMOS in their regular practices and 29.7% of the participants were neutral. 18.6% of the participants with a college degree strongly agreed for the implementation of GMOs for commercial practice while 27.0% of the participants agreed probably for this. 15.6% of such participants strongly disagreed while 9.1% of the participants probably disagreed on the undertaking of GMOs practicing. 29.6% of this category participants were neutral on this. Last category include those farmers who earned more than hundred dollars in previous year. 22.5% and 31.6% of such participants strongly agreed and agreed probably on this. 10.8% and 6.3% of these participants strongly disagreed and probably disagreed on GMOs undertaking. 28.8% of such participant were having neutral approach.

Another analysis conducted to determine the level of interest shown by participants for understanding GMOs through education and undertaking optimal organic practices (Refer Table 2 of Appendix). Among the participants with no previous organic farming practices, 39.5% of 153 such participants with no college degree were ready to try GMOs, while 22.7% of 88 such participants were not ready to try GMOs and 37.7% of 146 same category participants were neutral. Besides this, 51.4% of 167 participants having a college degree were ready to try GMOs while 20% of 65 such participants were not ready to try GMOs and 28.5% of 93 same background participants were having neutral approach. Furthermore, a survey on the participants with experience on organic farming determined that 33.0% of 29 participants with no degree were ready to undertake GMOs awareness while 40.9% of 36 such participants were not ready for GMOs awareness and 26.1% of 23 participants were neutral. Besides this, 27.9% of 41 participants with degree were ready for awareness while 39.4% of 41 such participants were not ready and 32.7% of 34 participants were neutral on the matter.

 

Discussion:

Different chosen variables such as earning, college degree, non-farming experience and undertaking organic farming determined the extent of willingness towards the acceptance for GMOs (World Bank 2007). The analysis from the results determines that still the approach of the farmers towards the implementation of genetically modified organisms for the crop production is not welcoming and progressive enough. A very less percentage of the farmers from different variables agree for the effective implementation and regulation of the GMOs for the commercial farming. Furthermore, these variables did not affected the overall result in any way (Karp et al. 2014).

Besides this, resultant of another survey conducted for the evaluation of the interest on GMOs and organic farming based on a variable of degree determined that farmers with no previous experience on organic farming are ready to undertake awareness practices for both degree and non-degree variable. While the numbers for not trying are extremely less. Furthermore, the numbers for the farmers who carry experience in organic farming for both degree and non-degree variables are high in case of not trying. This determines that the extent of awareness regarding GMOs and its effective implementation is poor. For this survey, the implemented variables does affect the overall resultant to a great extent as these variable demarks the farmers into two broad categories of experienced and inexperienced (Nicolia et al. 2014).

Genetic engineering does provides a promising future for the meeting of the future demands. This is the need of the hour to determine the importance of genetically modified organisms/ crops to the farmers who grow the crops for commercial purpose throughout the different continents of the country (Klumper and Qaim 2014). One of the best existing example of effective GMOs crop is Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt crops of cotton that are genetically modified and resistant to pests, viruses and even drought tolerant (Krishna and Qaim 2012). Different crops of maize sorghum, cotton, millet and rice has been grown on the same pattern in Africa to meet the deficit. Same practice has been conducted in United States as well for corn cotton, soybean and others (Fernandez et al. 2014). Besides all this development, the progress in this sector is not fast paced. Some farmers are undertaking this practice while others are not. This lack in willingness is mainly due to insufficient awareness and easy access to the resources for the effective implementation of GMOs for commercial purpose (Barrows, Sexton and Zilberman 2014).

 

References:

Barrows, G., Sexton, S. and Zilberman, D., 2014. Agricultural biotechnology: the promise and prospects of genetically modified crops. The Journal of Economic Perspectives28(1), pp.99-119.

Beckrich, A., 2013. Genetically Modified Crops. The Science Teacher80(4), p.10.

Fernandez-Cornejo, J., Wechsler, S., Livingston, M. and Mitchell, L., 2014. Genetically engineered crops in the United States.

Karp, A., Richter, G.M., Shield, I.F. and Hanley, S.J., 2014. Genetics, genomics and crop modelling: integrative approaches to the improvement of biomass willows. In Plants and bioenergy (pp. 107-130). Springer New York.

Klümper, W. and Qaim, M., 2014. A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops. PloS one9(11), p.e111629.

Krishna, V.V. and Qaim, M., 2012. Bt cotton and sustainability of pesticide reductions in India. Agricultural Systems107, pp.47-55.

Manzanares-Palenzuela, C.L., Martín-Clemente, J.P., Lobo-Castañón, M.J. and López-Ruiz, B., 2017. Electrochemical detection of magnetically-entrapped DNA sequences from complex samples by multiplexed enzymatic labelling: Application to a transgenic food/feed quantitative survey. Talanta164, pp.261-267.

Nicolia, A., Manzo, A., Veronesi, F. and Rosellini, D., 2014. An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research. Critical reviews in biotechnology34(1), pp.77-88.

Thomson, J.A., 2008. The role of biotechnology for agricultural sustainability in Africa. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences363(1492), pp.905-913.

World Bank, 2007. World development report 2008: Agriculture for development. World Bank.

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