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Questions: 1: Describe physical, intellectual, emotional and social development for each of the life stages of an individual .1.1: Discuss the nature-nurture debate in relation to the development of an individual .1.2: Evaluate how nature and nurture may affect the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development of two stages of the development of an individual .2: Explain the potential effects of five different life factors on the development of an individual .3: Explain the influence of two predicable and two unpredictable major life events on the development of an individual .4: Explain two theories of ageing .4.1: Discuss two major theories of ageing in relation to the development of the individual .4.2: Evaluate the influence of two major theories of ageing on health and social care provision .5: Explain the physical and psychological changes which may be associated with ageing. 5.1: Discuss the effects on self-esteem and self-confidence of the physical changes associated with ageing.   Answers: 1.) From many centuries the human lifespan has been described in stages.  The physical, intellectual, emotional and social development for each of the life stages of an individual can be understood first by understanding the life stages. The life stage of an individual includes infancy that ranges from the birth till two years of the individual life. In this stage the individual’s physical ability is limited as a baby, as they can sit without help and can walk for short distances. Intellectually the child is learning new tasks and things. They even try to communicate with their parents in words. Emotionally a child starts to bond with family members and people around them. They are most attached to their siblings and parents as they get a sense of security around them. This sense of security is important for them to experience as this will help them in their growing years and rest of their life. Socially they will start integrating with kids of their own age as their ability to recognize names and faces develop. They will start to share things and intermingle with kids around them. Early childhood that is the age between 3-8 a child has developed a lot physically and can do tasks like climbing stairs without any help. They are able to draw, write and speak clearly. Around the age of 8 they are able to catch and throw objects and have developed a good sense of balance. Intellectually they would communicate in full sentences and can even count the numbers. They will start developing a personality and will constantly learn from the behavior of people around them. Emotionally and socially they would get happy and excited around kids of their own age. They would love to play and show their excitement and sadness related to everyday life. Adolescence is ages between 9-18, it is when the teens hit as they are called “Teenagers” and will show major body changes. These changes occur do to hormonal release that turns a child into a reproductive adult. Intellectually they start thinking about their aims and goals in life. Their ability to logically solve problems on their own develops. Emotionally it is a hard time for the teenagers as the raging hormones will make them cranky, frustrated, and confused. They are attracted to the opposite sex and want to explore their sexuality. Socially it is a time of their life when they are most comfortable with people of their own age as they are meet new friends and have relationships. Early Adulthood is the time from age 19-45 through this age the physical changes have led to a deepened voice. Emotionally they have developed themselves around relationships such as marriage. They have a stable social life with relationships, long time friends etc. Middle Adulthood is the time between ages 46-65 when the physical capability of the body starts declining as skin loses elasticity, and wrinkles are visible. Muscles lose their tone and therefore slackness develops. Hearing and sight issues are experienced by an individual. Intellectually a person is still developing as many tend to turn things they have missed out in their early adulthood like returning to education etc. They have an advantage of experience which helps them to be wise with their decisions. Emotionally it is again a challenging time as the hormones are creating havoc. Social development grows as many have no responsibilities as kids have left the homes and they are retired from their jobs. These people tend to mix with their peers to enjoy life and causal talk. Later adulthood is the life after age 65+ at this stage the aging process has taken its toll. The skin becomes thin and the muscles grow even weaker. Bones are brittle and stiffer. Intellectually a person has developed and lot. So it does not result in reduction. Emotionally these people love to spend time around their kids and family. Socially they spend time with their friends and families. 1.1) Nature is responsible for the development of a fetus into an adult. The genetic makeup that results a person to have certain traits and features is all a part of “nature”. But these inherited genes only influences their appearance, their behavior is influenced by their environment and upbringing. Both of these factors are a part of “Nurture” as it directly affects a child behavior. 1.2) The two stages that we would see the affect of nature and nurture are childhood and adolescence. Physical development is affected by both nature and nurture. In childhood almost all children show the capacity to walk, imitate and use simple tools. Their stature, eye color and facial structure are all part of nature giving them their appearance due to their inherited genes. Nurture is the environment conditions that partner with nature to influence their development. Nurture also affects the physical appearance of the children as stress; nutrition and activity all influence their growth. Intellectually a child grows depending on both nature and nurture collectively. As research as shown that children are less productive if they are too shy and do not have friends. Socially this could be the result of parents not encouraging them to make new friends. These kids are not socially outgoing and therefore have no one to talk and spend time with. During adolescence nurture plays a great part as youngsters who have a typical environment during growing up, show a strong reflection of their environment in their behavior. If the child is from a stable, warm and loving family that has given him adequate nutrition nature steps in and ensures whether he has inherited the ability to acquire new skills quickly or not. But if it is the opposite as the child is genetically blessed with good genes but is from a family where he was not given adequate nutrition they usually fail to develop intellectual skills, even when they have the potential to develop them. 2) The 5 different life factors that can affect an individual in case of bullying are:- Socially a person who is getting bullied will not talk to others and would tend to be limited to hims
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