Explain The literature review of the research.
The literature review of the research is conducted to enable the researcher to understand the concepts, theories as well as current knowledge of QMS-ISO 9000 and Six Sigma. The aim of this literature review is to review published work on ISO 9000 and its implementation to enable the researcher to identify the issues and barriers that the organization is facing with the certification at the organization.
ISO 9000 QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (QMS)
ISO is a high esteem and established standard for Quality Management System (QMS) and is applicable across nearly every industry. ISO 9000 standard is initiated in 1987 as a theoretical framework and then developed into process oriented approach, according to which all the activities that affect customer (and not only the product) requirements, should be identified, mapped, understood, controlled ad continuously improved (ISO 2005, 2008). Kafel and Casadesus (2016) opined that ISO 9000 is implemented by over 1 million organizations. It is based on eight QM principles. The principles are discussed as below:
Customer focus It helps to increase the revenue as well as market share obtained throughout the fast responses to the market opportunities (Bernardo et al., 2015). ISO 9000 increases the effectiveness at the time of use of resources to enhance the customer satisfaction and improvement over the customer loyalty (De Oliveira, 2013). It provides with best practices requirements for an effective Quality Management System (QMS). Psomas and Pantouvakis (2015) argued that the QMS enables the business to run effectively as well as profitability in the marketplace.
Process Approach Goetsch and Davis (2014) outlined that the process approach consists of the system application of processes within the organization. The entire system is a homogeneous system with no part of being in isolation. The small businesses those are adopting the ISO 9000 can build their quality system in order to facilitate the development as well as an expansion of their business (Evans & Lindsay, 2014). ISO 9000 is one of three standards of the quality management that is used to build robust QMS (Karthi, et al., 2014).
System approach Integration as well as alignment of the processes that help to achieve desired results (Gitlow, Melnyck & Levine, 2015). The organizations should sustain success when the business processes are required to manage as one coherent QMS. The key benefits of this approach are that it has the ability to focus effort on the key processes (Hejazi & Levy, 2012). It provides confidence to the parties to consistency and efficiency of the organization (Hilton & Sohal, 2012).
Leadership Lakhal (2014) indicated that the leadership relates to inspire people to work to meet with organizational goals. Leadership is based on the philosophy that improves the quality, productivity as well as cost (Kafel & Casadesus, 2016). The key benefit of this approach is that it removes mis-communication among the employees and management level. Even the activities are evaluated and implemented in a unified manner (Psomas & Pantouvakis, 2015).
Continual Improvement IS0 9000 standard is the process for continual improvement to achieve the products of highest quality and achieve greater consumer confidence (De Oliveira, 2013). Gitlow, Melnyck and Levine (2015) stated that it has the flexibility in order to react quickly with the opportunities. The application is that it provides people training in methods as well as tools for making continual improvement (Lakhal, 2014).
Involvement of people There are motivated and involved people in the organization. The individuals are participated and contributed to continual improvement (Heras-Saizarbitoria & Boiral, 2015). The application of this approach leads to identify constraints to performance, evaluate performance against personal goals and accept ownership of problems (Kafel & Casadesus, 2016). People have the ability to share knowledge, experience and discuss problems (De Oliveira, 2013).
Decision making Simon et al., (2014) stated that effective decisions should be taken based on the logical investigation of data. Rework as well as customer data are important for making a decision. Karthi, et al., (2014) opined that decision-making approach ensures that the data are accurate as well as reliable. It makes data accessible and analyzes it using valid methods (Manville et al., 2014).
Supplier Relationships Mutual beneficial relationships among the organizations as well as suppliers enhance the capability of the organization to create an innovative value (Rao, 2016). The application is that this approach makes relationship based on long-term considerations such as identification of key suppliers and sharing of plans (Lakhal, 2014). Evans and Lindsay (2014) stated that it inspires and recognizes the areas of improvement.
There are some organizations certified to the ISO management system standards all over the world in the last five years. It has crossed a million of organizations by 2013 (Kyrillos et al., 2015). An ISO 9000 certified organization should have an effective QMS as well as achieves a high level of customer satisfaction, employee motivation, customer complaints, profit and minimal rejections. Gumerov et al., (2015) stated that the organization is failed due to growing too fast, poor execution of the business, failure to change in time, lack of reserve capital as well as failure to track the finances are some of the reasons of failure. For this reason, ISO 9000 standards are used by the organization to improve their productivity as well as profitability.
Growing too fast ISO 9001 gives a well-defined processes to identify the pinch points that come in the business (Mohammadi & Asgari, 2016).
Poor execution The core requirement of ISO 9000 is to meet the expectations of customers (Denton & Maatgi, 2016). Regular audit of the internal operations and measurement over the customer satisfaction ensures that focuses on customers are maintained.
Failing to change in time It is required to focus on the expectations and requirements of the customers. Therefore the business should focus on changes in the marketplace (Silva, Fonseca & Sousa, 2016). QMS assists to ensure the agreed changes that should be carried out in a structured manner.
Lack of reserve capital By monitoring the performance process and improvement over efficiency will able to keep cost to a minimum when overruns in labor and material occurs (Psomas & Pantouvakis, 2015).
Ineffective marketing Certification to ISO 9001 enables the business to promote success enhancing the marketing (Mohammadi & Asgari, 2016).
Failing to track the finances Management of the cash is vital for the large and small businesses. It is required to be close the customers as well as deliver their expectations (Cots, Casadesus & Marimon, 2016). Then the payment is made on time as well as queries delay payment reduced.
Inadequate business plan The planning of business is critical, and therefore it is required to communicate the business plan to the management and employees (Herasâ€Saizarbitoria & Boiral, 2013). ISO 9000 trains the employees and aware them about their respective roles.
Giacomarra et al., (2016) discussed a case study on the automobile industry, Ford Motor that intended to adopt the QMS in their business in the year 1960. At first, Ford Motor adopted Q101. However, in the year 1995, the company changes their standards to ISO 9000 or Ford’s Q1 award. With the implementation of ISO 9000, the quality principles, as well as tools, are associated with the TQM organization. The benefits of implementation of this standard in Ford Motors are as follows:
Increased marketability: Parra-Lopez et al., (2016) agreed that with the implementation of IS 9000 standard into Ford, it provides their business with heightened credibility with a current satisfaction level of the clients. With the implementation of the new standard in the business, it is proved that Ford Motors is desired to provide quality products to the customers (Nanda, 2016). This benefit increases the customer retention and acquisition so that they can compete with their competitors.
Reduce the operational expenses: Due to an adoption of a new standard, it is seen that the process of registration often describes major shortcomings in diverse operational areas. Goetz et al., (2015) argued that reduction in the operational issues results into improving the efficiencies that help Ford to gain time as well as cost savings. The costs of scrap returns, as well as employee time to analyze the product, are reduced due to initiating the ISO 9000.
Better control of management: The process of ISO 9000 requires much documentation as well as self-assessment of the business processes that increases the overall direction as well as processes of the company.
Improve the customer satisfaction: ISO 9000 certification is used in Ford Motors to improve the final quality of product to get superior levels of consumer satisfaction. By securing the ISO 9000 certification, Ford Motors can require providing their clients with a chance to give quality in their business dealings (Sallis, 2014).
Reduction in product liability risks: Kyrillos et al., (2015) stated that most of the industry experts compete that the companies should get ISO 9000 certification to strike with the product liability lawsuits due to a superiority of the business operations of Ford Motors. As due to an implementation of ISO 9000 standards, the car products are of good quality that satisfies the requirements of the customers.
ISO 9000 QMS Implementation Barriers and Issues
The researcher defined the common barriers that most of the organizations are faced while implementing ISO 9000 certification (Mitra, 2016). It is required that all the organization should understand the barriers before they implement QMS. In order to review the barriers and issues, the researcher categorizes the barriers as follows:
Lack of top management involvement and support
Gumerov et al., (2015) mentioned that the commitment of the top management is one of the important factors to successfully implement QMS within an organization. The connection between the top management support as well as product quality may not direct. Therefore, an involvement of the top management is required to improve the product quality (Mohammadi & Asgari, 2016). The top management is also involved in quality efforts at a phase of implementation as well as monitoring. Baroniene and Neverauskas (2015) cited that the commitment of the top management is required for successful QM implementation as leadership behavior of management translates the commitment into actions. It enhances the ability to analyze relevant information of consumer focus, benchmarking as well as supplier QMS.
Lack of human resources
Vrellas and Tsiotras (2015) stated that the human resource management is the availability of the process of training, a corporation as well as a relationship between the employees as well as managers. Insufficient educations to the employee, low skills of the employee as well as higher turnover of the employee to implement the QMS in the organization are the common barriers in HRM. Psomas (2016) cited that lack of education, as well as training programs, should be an obstacle to implementation of QMS, as these two are required to facilitate continual improvement within an organization. The education, as well as training programs, should be formal. The training program starts to appreciate the organization's quality initiatives as well as useful to understand the globalization as well as competitiveness on work (Furterer, 2016). Most of the Western organizations are failed to implement QMS as they started their training programs without identifying the impact on the quality. Denton and Maatgi (2016) argued that inconsistent reward system and lack of recognition are the obstacles. Cots, Casadesus and Marimon (2016) outlined that lack of respect and reward are done to achieve quality performance, which is a barrier to effective ISO 9001 implementation.
Lack of understanding of the ISO 9001 standards and their requirements
Rao (2016) quoted that due to lack of understanding of the QM principles, it results into an obstacle to implementing the standards into the organization. Due to lack of understanding of the ISO 9000 requirements, the organization faces difficulties to implement corrective actions, data control, and internal quality audit as well as document control (De Oliveira, 2013). These consequences have occurred when the management of the organization faces problems in fulfilling the following requirements of ISO 9001 standards as follows:
1. Failure into fulfilling the requirements of the quality system (Karthi, et al., 2014).
2. Failure into identifying the quality records as well as procedures to control the documentation (Marques et al., 2013).
3. Failure to ensure the products conformity
Statistical tools such as Statistical Process Control (SPC) are a difficult requirement in order to implement ISO 9000 standards. Bernardo et al., (2015) outlined that the reason for failing to implement SPC are a lack of understanding of the techniques to use it, lack of training as well as poor project control.
2.2.4 Organizational culture barriers
Kafel and Casadesus (2016) opined that the organizational culture is the most vital barriers to implementing the ISO 9000 standards. The organizational culture consists of knowledge, law, belief and customers that are acquired by the employees in the organization. Lakhal (2014) argued that successful implementation of the QMS requires a good organizational culture as well as an integrated process to change in organizational behavior. Rao (2016) outlined that education, training; programs of employee participation and improvement are influencing the culture of the organization over communication, review of procedures as well as policies and modification in the reward system.
2.2.5 High cost of certification
The high cost of the certification is a major barrier to implementing the ISO 9000 certification as it is generated by consultant and registration fee, training as well as time taken to implement the system. A high fee of consultancy in order to facilitate the registration process is a key factor for the high cost of certification. Silva, Fonseca and Sousa (2016) argued that the consultation cost, implementation, as well a third party certification cost is high. The cost of upgrading the entire infrastructure in order to meet the international standards and development cost are the vital barriers to implementing the standards (Giacomarra et al., 2016). Even the lack of financial capability of the organization in order to maintain the QMS cost is one of the issues that affects the implementation process.
2.2.6 Lack of Documentation
Denton and Maatgi (2016) stated that the documentation of the QMS within an organization is affected by its complexity as well as the interaction of processes. The QMS documentation is represented within the quality manual that consists of quality policy as well as objectives. Silva, Fonseca and Sousa (2016) opined that approximately 80 percent of the failures of the ISO 9000 implementation within the organization are due to improper document as well as data.
2.2.7 Lack of supplier control and cooperation
Supplier relationship, involvement, and lack of duration of a relationship are the barriers. Vrellas and Tsiotras (2015) stated that role of too many suppliers in implementation to one organization is a barrier to implementing QMS. Psomas (2016) argued that lacks of cooperation from the suppliers are also a reason for failure in implementation of ISO 9000 standards within the organization.
Timans et al., (2016) opined that using the concept of six sigma the organization should eliminate the defects, reduction in production as well as expansion costs, reduction in cycle times as well as inventory levels and enhance in the profit margin with improving the customer satisfaction. Patel, Asodariya and Patel (2016) stated that six sigma provides with an effective mechanism to focus on the requirements of customers through improvement over the process quality. The benefits of the Six Sigma are an increase in revenue as well as a reduction in cost. Gitlow, Melnyck and Levine (2015) stated the role of Six Sigma in various industries such as:
Healthcare: The cost of healthcare is high as well as the aging population increases stress on the healthcare sectors. Six Sigma helps to increase the time the care providers are spending with their patients (Arcidiacono, Costantino & Yang, 2016). It also reduces the time spent in the paperwork and reduces the time people are spending waiting for care.
Technology: On a daily basis, the customers rely on the advanced technology. Six Sigma helps the business to deliver the products with fewer defects and decreases returns.
Financial services: Budgets are continued to tighten as well as resources become more limited (De Mast & Lokkerbol, 2012). Using the Six Sigma in the service, it shortens the time the new customers take to sign up, reduces the time to give the customer service as well as brings the revenue in faster.
The tactics of the Six Sigma consists of five of the phrase such as:
Define phase: It consists of identification of the requirements of the customers, process mapping as well as selection of the projects (Gitlow, Melnyck & Levine 2015). The process of Six Sigma identifies the key characteristics that are required to identify the customer’s requirements as well as processes that support with the existing output conditions as well as elements of a process.
Measure phase: It consists of identification of critical to quality and cost parameters, generating data collection plan and statistical process control (Sunder, 2013). In this particular step, the key process characteristics are to be categorized; then the measurement systems are required to verify, and the data are collected.
Analyze phase: It consists of data analysis to quantify the critical root causes using the graphical tools, testing of hypothesis, ANOVA, correlation and regression (Hejazi & Levy, 2012). After the collection of the data, the data are analyzed using the Six Sigma Model. Using the collected data, the information is produced to identify any issue within the business structure of the organization.
Improve phase: It consists of generation as well as a selection of the tools using the design of Six Sigma process. At this particular stage, the project team members identify as well as implement the potential solutions to process the problems (De Mast & Lokkerbol, 2012). The results of the processes are changed and measured, and particular adjustments are taken into account as per the business as well as customer’s requirements.
Control phase: It consists of developing as well as implementing the control plans, a process of monitoring using SPC and feedback plan (Pyzdek & Keller, 2014). This phase is found to be performed at the desired as well as predictable level. This step is also called as the maintenance portion of the methodology of Six Sigma (Psomas, 2016). It is monitored in order to assure that there are not unexpected changes have occurred within the business operations of an organization.
Jacobs, Swink and Linderman (2015) discussed a case study on the implementation of Six Sigma in order to decrease the cost of quality. This case study is based on an automobile sector. Within the automobile sector, the success of the organization is based on the needs of the customers. The customers are attached with least amount of manufacturing costs and lead time used to commence the car products into the marketplace (Evans & Lindsay, 2014). Therefore, Six Sigma is one of the powerful methodologies used by the automobile industry to reduce the quality cost. Due to prevention in defect as well as improved product leads to increase the profitability as well as market share (Fadly Habidin & Mohd Yusof, 2013). The following are the fields within the automotive industry where the implementation of the Six Sigma is applicable as follows:
1. Improving the safety as well as dependability of the finished vehicles
2. Reducing the manufacturing defects at all of the stages
3. Using the process of design failure mode effect analysis, prevention of the design failure is done (Basu & Wright, 2012).
4. Improvement over the entire incoming material quality
5. Optimization of the inventory levels at major parts (Orme et al., 2013).
6. Reduction in order to manufacture the products
7. Reduction in supplier lead-time, the instance taken to carry the goods and services
Using the DMAIC methodology, the process improvement team of the automotive industry deploys to increase the customer satisfaction as well as ROI by making improvement in the availability of QMS. Manville et al., (2012) discussed the DMAIC methodology for the automotive industry. Desai et al., (2012) opined that firstly in the define phase the service representatives are affected by the unavailability of the business operations as well as downtime. They communicate with the field personnel on the issues that the organization faces. Hilton and Sohal (2012) defined that the problem areas are identified as the slowness of the system as well as poor system availability and length of the total time taken to report the issues. Secondly, in the measured phase, process mapping is used to characterize the current process of the automotive industry (Swink & Jacobs, 2012). After analyzing the defects in the business process, the third phase is analyzed. The data those are gathered from using the process mapping method is analyzed to identify the problems. Fourthly, improve phase is used to make development in the areas those are identified by the process management team to improve over (Arumugam et al., 2013). Lastly, in the control phase, the resolution time of defects are monitored.
2.4 Six Sigma Implementation Barriers and Issues
The approach of Six Sigma is associated with the large companies. Lack of education, as well as knowledge on the implementation of Six Sigma, is the misconceptions about the Six Sigma that has made the small and medium sized companies become complex about the applicability of the Six Sigma (Psychogios et al., 2012). The barriers to the implementation of the Six Sigma are as follows:
2.4.1 Lack of resources
The project on the Six Sigma consumes some of the resources such as financial and human resources. Mahato et al., (2016) stated that in order to implement Six Sigma, the organizations are required trained workforce to run the projects. The project leader of Six Sigma is called as Black Belt (BB) who works for the full time on the projects. The team associates of the project are known as Green Belts (GB) who works part of their time on the plans.
2.4.2 Internal resistance
Change within the organization will meet with a certain amount of resistance. Within the small and medium size organization, the employees are getting familiar with the process they are using for a long time. Rosemann and vom Brocke (2015) opined that the resistance to change is to be anticipated by the Six Sigma teams. The resistance to change is being criticized by new applications as well as tools those are implemented for Six Sigma (Orme et al., 2013). One of the major sources of resistance is that the implementation of six sigma leads to a decrease in the workforce.
2.4.3 Lack of knowledge on the six sigma
Desai et al., (2012) argued in the statement that the Six Sigma is not a quality improvement initiative, but it is an initiative of business improvement. In order to implement the Six Sigma, the business needs a lot of high skilled expertise to run the projects effectively. Mahato et al., (2016) stated that the adoptions of the Six Sigma are required expertise that has proper knowledge at various levels of the organization.
2.4.4 False notion that makes Six Sigma too complex to use
Most of the people think that Sis Sigma involves too complex mathematical as well as statistical data. The reality is that it consists of mathematics, but it is simple. The statistical calculations are involved with the implementation process is simple to understand as well as computer software packages such as Mini-tab have eased application of the statistics related to Six Sigma (Manville et al., 2012).
2.4.5 Lacunae in collection of data
The services of the company those are failed to meet the internal and external requirements of the customers are solved by data collection method based on quality and quantity. A collection of too much or little data is considered as a detrimental to the development of the process. Fadly Habidin and Mohd Yusof (2013) opined that measure phase of DMAIC is used to obtain the information about the business process. Hejazi and Levy (2012) argued that analyze phase is used to gather the data using statistical tests.
2.5 Linking ISO QMS with Six Sigma-Proposed Model
The booming implementation of the Six Sigma is based on the effectiveness of the company to articulate its existing management system. According to Patel, Asodariya and Patel (2016), the integration of the Six Sigma with the ISO QMS is considered as one of the rising research trends on the Six Sigma. There are some rational linkages between Six Sigma as well as ISO 9000 as well as results into advantages from their integration. Undertaking the initiative of Six Sigma helps the organization to optimize the efficiency of the business processes (Pyzdek & Keller, 2014). It is undertaken to make progress to achieve an ISO 9000 certification. On the other hand, the ISO 9000 standards are the method for deployment of Six Sigma. The following points are discussed to show the linkages between Six Sigma as well as ISO 9000:
Both ISO and Six Sigma focus on improvement activities: Six Sigma DMAIC in inspired towards the continual improvement cycle, therefore it is used to fulfill the standard’s requirements (Sunder, 2013). On the other hand, the eight principles of ISO are used to create opportunities for improvement. Both the approaches required systematic continual improvement process. Timans et al., (2016) developed operational level analysis in order to ease the implementation of the DMAIC phases as a part of the ISO 9000 QMS.
ISO 9000 requirements identify the potential of Six Sigma projects: De Mast and Lokkerbol (2012) stated that QMS audits are used as a source of information in order to make out the possible improvement areas. Hejazi and Levy (2012) referred that the projects of Six Sigma are identified by analyzing the requirements of customers as well as satisfaction measures determined in the ISO standards.
ISO 9000 internal audits are performed in parallel with the Six Sigma: ISO 9000 QMS helps the business to maintain the benefits of the Six Sigma projects (Timans et al., 2016). The inner audit programs are expanded to comprise the administrative features of the initiative of Six Sigma and control phase.
Table 2.3: Comparison of the ISO 9000 QMS and Six Sigma
Parameter ISO 9000 Six Sigma
Purpose It provides an equitable basis to assess the efficiency of the organization to meet customer’s requirements (Nanda, 2016). It achieves sustainable growth of business to improve the innovation process, services, and products to give value to customers
Scope Requirements of QMS Setting of strategies and methodologies to improve the performance of business (Timans et al., 2016).
Framework Improvement thinking Achieving improvement and then link it to profitability
Intent It is used for certification and evaluation purposes (Silva, Fonseca & Sousa, 2016). It is optimized the performance as well as maximizes the profitability (Patel, Asodariya & Patel, 2016).
Method of improvement PDCA model DMAIC roadmap
Responsibilities Process owner, Management Representative Sponsor, Owner of the process, Master Black Belt, Black and Green Belt
Financial Benefits Benefits of the implementation are reported, and it gives financial benefits The companies have reported as well as the quantified large amount of savings (De Mast & Lokkerbol, 2012).
Documentation Documentation is specified Documentation is not specified
Education Training, skills, experience of job Qualification requirements of belt infrastructure
Limitations There are no such direct requirements concerns on profitability and strategy (Cots, Casadesus & Marimon, 2016). Required data are available and some statistical assumptions are made, lack of theoretical justification
The impacts of the six sigma tools are related to the relevant ISO 9001 requirements such as:
2.5.1 Integration of Six Sigma and ISO "Resource Management"
Denton and Maatgi (2016) stated that the Six Sigma can be defined as a processes that are based on the statistics and help the organization to improve the different operations and processes that are running in the organization. The Six Sigma processes are used by the organizations to identify and eliminate the different reasons that cause the variations from the desired results from the different processes (Lakhal, 2014). On the other hand the ISO is a standard that is used to manage and clearly define the different processes, procedures, and resources that are important for the organization to get the control over the overall quality management efforts.
More over the ISO helps the organizations to have the minimum acceptable procedures, systems and operations that are used to meet the quality and the standards of the products or services. Giacomarra et al., (2016) opined that in case of Six Sigma, it is important for the organization that it has the right people at the right places in the black belt role like the trainer in the organization. These black belts are the face of the Six Sigma. These black belts are helpful in shaping the impression for the Six Sigma for the organization (Herasâ€Saizarbitoria & Boiral, 2013). For this the leader of human resource in the organization has to build competency model that ensures the identification of the suitable candidates with the proper technical, team and leadership skills. De Oliveira (2013) stated that at the same time they need to develop some retention plans that are going to attract the employees so that they can perform better and achieve the quality of the product or the service.
For the resource management the Six Sigma tools are used to meet the requirements of the ISO standards. Barafort, Mesquida & Mas (2016) opined that to meet the ISO standards it is important to assess the processes and the operations in the organizations. Therefore for this the Six Sigma is used. According to the ISO standard the conformity of the product requirement or the services depends on the appropriate education, training, experience, skill of the employees or the human resources (Silva, Fonseca & Sousa, 2016). For this the organization should the organization should determine the competence of the personnel’s or employees who are affecting the conformity of the products. Kyrillos et al., (2015) stated that whenever necessary the organization should provide training to the employees or take action against the employees to achieve the desired competency. The organization also has to ensure that the employees are aware about the importance of their activity and their contribution to achieve the desired quality. At last the organization has to record the education, training, and skills that are provided or is acquired by the employees of the organization (Baroniene & Neverauskas, 2015). The integration helps the organization to focus on the important processes, better utilization of the human resources that helps in the increased accountability of them. Also it helps in the customer satisfaction and to enhance the confidence of the organization.
2.5.2 Integration of Six Sigma and ISO “Management Responsibility”
In the integration process of the ISO and the Six Sigma, the quality management and the project review can be involved at the same time while executing an operation or process (Denton &Maatgi, 2016). For the Six Sigma the project review is a stage at which the simple checks are done like whether the project is maintaining the timeline, the use of appropriate tools, and so on. The team leader in the project has the responsibility of the reviewing the processes or milestones. Giacomarra et al., (2016) discussed that he main participants in these steps are the six sigma green belts, black belts, champions, master black belts and other team members who are involved in those meetings. This project review starts with the introduction of the project by the champion. Subsequently other members contribute to this review meeting with their point of view (Timans et al., 2016). The review process of a project helps the team members to stay focused aware of the progress or milestones are achieved. If the project team is facing any barriers or problems then the team members can communicate with the champions to get the idea of the best practices on the relate subject or matter. The management team is focused on the customer’s requirements as well as their needs. The responsibilities of the management team are categorized as follows:
Management Commitment: De Mast & Lokkerbol (2012) stated that the management team should support their team members in the implementation of the ISO and Six Sigma in their business operations. This focus relates to the engaging as well as directing the employees to achieve the organizational goals. Sunder (2013) argued that participation of people in to the business process are required to achieve success and make profitability in the business. It focuses to state that the organization is nothing and the abilities of the employees should be utilized to get the business success for the organization (Pyzdek & Keller, 2014). This helps the employees to work to their maximum ability and to contribute ideas.
Customer focus- This standard identifies with client needs and services: a business ought to comprehend their clients and look to meet their requirements (Patel, Asodariya & Patel, 2016). Where possible, they ought to mean to surpass client requirements. The benefit of this focus is the loyal customer base for the organizations product or services.
Quality policy: ISO 9000 quality policy document consists of quality goals as well as objectives that the organization requires to implement within the organization. Fadly Habidin and Mohd Yusof (2013) stated that it is a commitment that is used to provide an outline to create and measure the performance of the quality objectives. The quality policy is created as per the requirements of the customers to make improvements in the quality of their services as well as products.
Leadership- This focus relates to the engaging as well as directing the employees to achieve the organizational goals (Evans & Lindsay, 2014).
Responsibility, authority and communication: Through this the main objectives are to understand that, if the appropriate processes are used then they will speed up the activities. Manville et al., (2012) discussed that through this the main objective is to embrace different opportunities and improved performance of the organization in difficult situations. This focuses on the managing multiple tasks as a system, so that a higher degree of efficiency can be achieved. Desai et al., (2012) opined that proper communication is required among the top management members as well as other project team so that they can implement the ISO 9000 in their business.
Management review: This focuses on the decision making process depending upon the data and its analysis. The decision making also have to include the good business sense (Swink & Jacobs, 2012). This principle relates to the relation between the relation between the organization and its suppliers. It acknowledges that they are interdependent. The productivity and the efficiency of the organization increases as the relation between them get stronger.
2.5.3 Integration of Six Sigma and ISO "Product Realization"
Lakhal (2014) stated that ISO product realization is used within the organization to describe work that the organization develops manufactures as well as delivers the finished services. QMS includes the approach to get from the product concept to the finished product. Most of the organizations are losing their millions of dollars while launching the product in the market. Simon et al., (2014) argued that at the time of launching of the product, the issues those are raised are quality as well as cost issues.
Due to failure while launching of the product, it results in dissatisfaction of the customers as well as lost of revenue. Low cost, high qualities of products as well as quick delivery are the expectations of the customers (Rao, 2016). The organization provides product realization planning tools that achieve predictable success in the launching of the product. The business is required to integrate training services in order to support the deployment of the processes in a product as well as process design. Denton and Maatgi (2016) stated that in order to attain the business objectives, the majority of the organizations analyze their current product design processes using the DMAIC methodology of Six Sigma. It is analyzed to determine the lead-time of product design.
Silva, Fonseca and Sousa (2016) opined that the concept of Six Sigma and ISO results into major reductions in the cost of design that increases the design throughput as well as engineering productivity. The product manager examines the approach of Six Sigma and ISO to set the business objectives of new product launch (Giacomarra et al., 2016). The DMAIC methodology of Six Sigma is incorporated into the product realization in order to improve the planning process. ISO 9000 requires an organization to develop the product realization processes. At the time of performing, the planning of product realization the organization should determine the quality of the product (Kyrillos et al., 2015). The quality records are required to provide evidence that the business fulfills the requirements of the product realization process as well as quality results.
2.5.4 Integration of Six Sigma and ISO "Measurement, Analysis and Improvement"
ISO 9000 measurement, analysis, and improvement become a challenge for most of the organizations (Arcidiacono, Costantino & Yang, 2016). The organization should require reviewing the management, do internal audits as well as take preventive actions to evaluate the quality of the systems. Hejazi & Levy (2012) opined that the Six Sigma assists ISO as Six Sigma is a quality improvement process to reduce the defects within the system as 3.4 per million. The following are the areas that should be measured, analyzed and improved within the organization to reduce the cost and given high quality products to the customers:
220.127.116.11 Customer Satisfaction
Jacobs, Swink and Linderman (2015) stated that the business should monitor the information on the satisfaction level of the customers as one of the performance measurements of QMS. It is required to ensure that the organization has system to address the complaints of the customers as well as feedback (Gitlow, Melnyck & Levine 2015). The product manufacturing operations have created the level of satisfaction that collects end-user satisfaction data as well as analyze to provide preventive actions for future product improvements.
18.104.22.168 Analysis of Data
The organization should collect as well as analyze the data in order to establish the appropriateness of the system and its effectiveness to improve. Fadly Habidin and Mohd Yusof (2013) discussed that the activities of measuring as well as monitoring are the sources of data. The analysis of the data provides information about the satisfaction and dissatisfaction level of customers, product characteristics, trends, process as well as suppliers.
The organizations are facilitating the continual improvement throughout the use of the quality policy, results of audits and analysis and management review (Hilton & Sohal, 2012). These procedures are used to plan the processes required for continual improvement.
2.6 Acceptation of ISO 9000 standard and Six Sigma
Timans et al., (2016) opined that selection of the best approach for the business process improvement is dependent on the culture of the organization. When the organization values the analytical studies, then Six Sigma is the best approach to be followed by the organization and it is the best program to lead off with. As the level of quality assurance of the products as well as services are the main attribute to enhance the competitiveness of the organization. Gitlow, Melnyck and Levine (2015) argued that the implementation of the Six Sigma projects are considered at various levels of QMS that allows expressing the view that this particular methodology is accurate to be implemented within the organization.
Acceptance of the ISO 9000 standards is due the reason that it presents guidelines to increase the efficiency of the business as well as the satisfaction of the customers. Barafort, Mesquida and Mas (2016) stated that the main objective of this ISO 9000 standard is to increase the productivity of the organization, reduction of cost as well as ensuring the quality of both products as well as processes. Cots, Casadesus and Marimon (2016) opined that this particular standard is important as for any organization, quality is most important. With using this standard, the organization can be able to identify the cause of the problems and then give the respective solutions (Psomas & Pantouvakis, 2015). By improving the efficiency of the organization, the profit of the business is maximized.
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