• Describe the decision process for determining the logical form of data collection and how data are stored once the data are collected,
• Assess the purpose of information storage systems.
• Create a taxonomy based on a concept (e.g., decision-making) describing the benefits of various types of databases (e.g., spatial, object-relational, extended relational, bio-diversity [taxonomic], multimedia), optical storages, and data warehouses (e.g., web-enabled, data marts) and the purpose of the data stored.
• Conclude how organizational leaders might deploy your model to make effective business decisions.
Data Collection and Data Storage
Data collection and management is a strategic approach to gathering the data and information from the relevant source and storing those data in an appropriate and useful manner. The collection of data begins after a research problem is defined. This defined an ongoing systematic collection; analysis and interpretation of data are for future use (Freeman, 2010). Data collected in a systematic manner and then stored in appropriate manner helps in searching of data in future. That means if any information needed in future then one can directly refer to the collected data for quick search, this helps in saving a lot of time of persons, and they can easily focus on their other job. There are two types of data Primary and Secondary data. Data collected for the first time is Primary data, and data collected by someone or already passed is secondary data. Tough for collecting these data there is need for take correct decision such as decision of collecting the data from the correct and appropriate source, data collected is relevant or not, unnecessarily collection of a lot of data, attention to policy and procedure of gathering data etc. This decision-making process for the collection of data is very important (Rudolph, 2014). There a various method employed for collection of data. Some of them are mentioned below:
After the collection of data the second concern is storage of data. Data collection is not only to how and what is collected but also how to store data.After collecting the data those data, must be stored securely but also made easily available for analysis. Basic data processing principles should followed for management of data. Original raw data should be stored in the databases. Data collection systems should be integrated to the data management systems. An adequate personnel and financial resources are needed to maintain, make regular archives protect the data. To ensure the confidentiality and integrity access must need to be controlled. Earlier to store the collected data traditional methods were used but today is the time of electronic data storage (Kew, 2010). This storage format is easily adaptable to evolving computers. Some other considerations for storing the data electronically such as:
- Low cost
- Fast access to data
- Capability to archive the data
- A backup system
In above discussion data collection and storing the collected data is discussed in details that clarify the types, method of data collection, and the importance of storing the data securely.
Information Storage Systems
Computes are highly efficient for storing the managing the data. Computers have the capability to collate the vast amount of data and information. With the widespread use of databases, spreadsheets, emails, transfer of data electronically have increased the speed as well as the volume of storing the data. These techniques also help in turning the individual’s bits of data into useful information for others. Information storage media also can be hardware that is used to accumulate the huge amount of data physically. These storage devices come mainly in three forms: optic, solid state and magnetic. Floppy disks, tapes and hard drives are the form of magnetic storage systems (McCool and St. Amant, 2009). Optical devices came in forms of flat circular discs and made of very strong plastic. Solid state storage systems are mainly available in three forms SSD (solid- state-drives), SSC (solid- state- cards) and SSM (solid- state- modules). These devices are used for the storage of large amount data for a long period sometimes forever. The software devices are economical and easy to carry anywhere along with us. Maintenance of these devices is also easy. The use of e-mails, spreadsheets, databases are also easy to access and manage from anywhere.
Taxonomy Describing the Benefits of Databases
A strategic potential of the Information System is now well recognized. The five decision-making processes—namely, planned, provincial, incremental, fluid, and political—seem quite distinct, in terms of the activities involved and the influences encountered, as well as the conditions under which they are used. A database is created to accumulate information there are several advantages of databases systems such as enhanced data sharing, improved data security, better data integration, data inconsistency is less, improved data access, Improved decision making, increased end- user productivity, etc. Decision making is better because of improved access to data and better management of data (Larson, 1982). It is a comprehensive data to promote the timeliness, accuracy and validity of data providing a framework to facilitate data quality initiatives.
An object- relational Database system is database extends the relational database management systems. In this databases attributes of tuples to have complex types including the non- atomic values. In the schemas of the object, classes and inheritance are supported directly in schemas of database and query language. Relational foundations are preserved in this database model.
Spatial Database Management System allows spatial data types in the model as well as in query language. Spatial indexing is important and mandatory (Sunil, Seetha and Vinotha, 2012). This type of database also supports connected objects from different classes are also supported by this type of database through some spatial relationships.
Extended Relational Database Systems: Extended relational databases are widely used for designing of database tools. E-R model of database designing is used for storage and processing. It is usually converted into the relational model (DATABASE Editorial Board 2009, 2009). This model describes the relation between two entities more broadly. This model is extended form of relational database.
Bio- Diversity Database model is created to accumulate the information related to biological taxa. Taxonomic database systems are the automated construction of biological checklists. These databases are used to keep the track of biological information. This information stored in the taxonomic database can be accessed and used by any medical representatives or students, researchers or by anyone for the research purpose or to analyze the information and results provided (Wilde, 2010).
Multimedia Database is the storage of multimedia data such as text, audio, video, images, animations, graphics, etc. This database is the combination of different media. With the rapid increase in digital information today the multimedia databases are used. This database is different from the traditional database management systems. Multimedia database is composed of complex data.
Optical Storage is the electronic medium for storing the data. In optical storage, the data can be stored by using the low power laser beams. Digital data are encoded in the form of optical data with the help of laser beams. It provides a huge storage capacity. With the development of WORM, optical disks are now erasable but earlier it was not available.
Data Warehouses are in support of decision- making process, non- volatile, time invariant, and subject oriented relational database designed for query and analysis. It does not support the transaction processing.
Use of Database for making Effective Business Decisions
A direct and positive impact has been made by the Database Management System (IT) on decision- making. Firms have found applications of Database Management System for their enterprise decision making necessities. To get a fruitful use of resources is expected from any IT system (McDougall, 2014). There are various examples which show the contribution of Database Management System in enhancing Decision- making in the corporate field (Birkinshaw and Jenkins, 2010). A direct and positive impact has been made by the Database Management System on decision making. Firms have found applications of database management system for their enterprise decision- making necessities. To get a fruitful use of resources is expected from any Database Management System (DATABASE Editorial Board 2009, 2009). Some points are mentioned below which help in improving decision- making for leaders in business:
- Enhanced data sharing
- Improved data security
- Better data integration
- Data inconsistency is less
- Improved data access
- Improved decision making
- Increased end- user productivity
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