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Question:

Discuss about the Manaagerial Communication ?
 
 

Answer:

Introduction

Communication is an essential activity. However, the personality traits of individuals might hinder the process of communication. This assignment focuses on four tools namely Big 5 personality test, Myers Briggs Personality test, Emotional intelligence and Social style. These are some of the pioneer tools used for assessment of personality traits in a person. Each of the tools is described and the similarities and differences among the results obtained from these tools have been mentioned, as found from the diagnostics. Various theories namely Freud’s personality theory and Eysenck’s personality theory have been also highlighted. Moreover, the differences among the various test results have also been highlighted in this essay. Some of the areas that need improvements have also been identified in this essay and recommendation has been provided to improve those skills and enhance effective communication.    

Analysis of tools

Big five personality traits: One of the most important tools for personality test is Big five personality trait. This model has five factors on basis of which the personality of a person is analysed. These five factors include openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. Openness to experience refers to the appreciation of emotions and arts. This is also described as the extent to which a person is imaginative. This is an essential factor for determining the personality of an individual (Vecchione et al., 2016). Conscientiousness is referred to as the tendency of a person to be dependable and act dutiful. This nature of a person is a determining factor of a person’s personality traits. The positive energy in a person, including positive emotion and sociability is tested using the Big five personality traits tool. Agreeableness refers to the qualities such as compassion and cooperative nature of a person, and determines the positive side of personality (Vecchione et al., 2016). Neuroticism is the way a person experience negative emotions such as anger, anxiety and pain. It is important that a person deals with the negative emotions without being aggressive.

Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI): The Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI) is an introspective self report that is used for personality assessment. This is one of the most famous personality assessment tools that are used (Kim & Lee, 2016). The various precepts that is used in MBTI are extraversion or introversion, sensing or intuition, thinking or feeling, judging or perceiving. Using this assessment tool, sixteen types of personalities could be found. These are some of the essential qualities that determine the personality of a person. Since, MBTI approaches these qualities; hence the test results obtained from MBTI are reliable enough.  

Emotional intelligence personality test: This is an interactive personality test tool that is used to assess the personality of an individual. Emotional intelligence test judges individuals how they handle emotions. Emotional intelligence refers to the ability of a person to understand the emotions of himself as well as other people (Druskat, Mount & Sala, 2013). Emotional intelligence is as essential quality of a person and has a significant effect on the personality of an individual. This tool focuses on the various qualities such as self-awareness, management of emotions and motivation of oneself. Empathy and social skills are also judged in this personality test (Goleman, Boyatzis & McKee, 2013). Self awareness is an essential quality that makes a person aware of oneself. Management of emotions are also tested by this tool. Management of positive as well as negative emotions are essential and overflow of emotions affect effective communication negatively.

Social style: This is an assessment tool that assesses the personality of a person on two parameters, namely assertiveness and responsiveness (Muir et al. 2015). Assertiveness in a person refers to the confidence that is portrayed by the person. Responsiveness refers to the rapidity of response that is given by a person in any situation, or how fast the person reacts.  

All of the above mentioned tools are personality assessment tools. However, each of the tools focuses on different aspects of an individual’s personality.  The Big Five personalities traits vary from MBTI to a significant extend. The tool MBTI divides the people into types; whereas the Big Five divides the people into traits. In case of MBTI, all data collected by assessment points to the fact that traits are dimensional. However, it cannot produce typological data. MBTI assessment tool is usually used in assessing the personality of people associated with education or business. Big Five assessment tool dominates in academic research.  The Big Five model is a scientific model and relies on science rather than intuition.

The various theories of personality traits are as follow:

Freud’s three level of awareness:

According to this theory, there are three levels of consciousness. These are the conscious mind, unconscious mind and the preconscious mind. Along with this, the theory also suggests that personality is composed of the id, the ego and the super ego (Allen, 2015). The results that are obtained from the four personality assessment tools vary, since each person is dominated by each of these three traits separately.

Another distinguished theory of personality is the Eysenck’s personality theory. This theory identifies three dimensions of the personality of human beings. These are extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism (Crain, 2015). According to this theory, the two dimensions of neuroticism namely stable versus unstable and introversion-extroversion could be combined to form various personality traits. The personality traits obtained in Big Five personality tool are formed using this theory. Using the personality assessment tools it has been observed that one of the weaknesses found from the result of all of the tools is lack of active listening.  

The results obtained from each of the four tools were found to differ from each other. While the results of MBTI highlight that the person relies on sensing and judging, the Big 5 personality test highlights that the person is extrovert. However, though the person is portrayed as extrovert, the emotional intelligence shows that the social skills of the person are low. Thus, the test results vary to a great extent.        

 

Strategies

Listening and effective listening has a huge difference. As revealed by the assessment tools, it has been observed that in extrovert personality trait, active listening in hardly done. This kind of personality listens to reply promptly. Hence, as a result, some of the communication is often misunderstood by people with extrovert personality trait. In order to mitigate this weakness, active listening has to be practiced regularly (Schultz & Schultz, 2016). Active listening includes observation of the verbal and non-verbal communication of the speaker, along with understanding the actual meaning of what the speaker has to say. Effective communication includes active listening; hence it needs to be practiced. Self –consciousness and staying in conscious mind has to be practiced as well. Out of the three levels of consciousness as described in Freud’s theory of personality, staying in conscious mind has to be ensured to incorporate active listening (Muir et al. 2015). The overall communication could be improved by incorporating the principles of effective communication. The principles include being courteous to each other while communication. Correctness of the information being exchanged has to be maintained. The communication needs to be conscious and clarity in communication should be maintained. These practices would ensure enhancement of communication. Moreover, adequate importance needs to be given to the gestures, body language and facial expression. These form an integral part of active listening and effective communication (Crain, 2015). The negative personality traits such as aggression, anger, ego needs to be eliminated, while communicating. These might be useful in ensuring positive and effective communication. Moreover, it is important to avoid overflow of emotions in communication. Emotions such as pain or happiness should not dominate the process of communication.      

Conclusion

This essay focuses on four most important personality assessment tools namely the Big Five assessment tool, MBTI, emotional intelligence as well as social style, it has been observed that the person is extrovert and is open to experience. In order to mitigate the issue of lack of effective listening, active listening and effective communication needs to be incorporated while communicating with each other.  From the personality test result, of the various tools, the test results have been seen to differ from each other. In the Big 5 personality test, it has been observed that the candidate is open to experience new things. Moreover, the person is conscientious and is extraversion. However, the agreeableness of the person is comparatively high. However, in MBTI, the candidate relies on sensing as well as feeling. The person is also judgemental in nature. In the emotional intelligence tool, self awareness and empathy are the main characteristics of the person. However, the social skills are quiet low. Thus, some of the personality tests are contradictory in the results obtained from two or more tools. The social style personality tool highlights that the candidate’s nature is assertive. This means that the person is confident and has a strong personality. The focus of this assignment and the personality tests were to highlight the personality of the person and identify the areas where the person needs to improve to enhance the process of communication.   

 

References

Allen, B. P. (2015). Personality theories: Development, growth, and diversity. Psychology Press.

Crain, W. (2015). Theories of development: Concepts and applications. Psychology Press.

Druskat, V. U., Mount, G., & Sala, F. (2013). Linking emotional intelligence and performance at work: Current research evidence with individuals and groups. Psychology Press.

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2013). Primal leadership: Unleashing the power of emotional intelligence. Harvard Business Press.

Kim, H. E., & Lee, S. E. (2016). Childcare Teachers Educational Beliefs and Self-efficacy according to Psychological Preferences of the MBTI Test. Korean Journal of Childcare and Education, 12(1), 171-185.

Muir, K., Joinson, A., Cotterill, R., & Dewdney, N. (2015). Power and personality in linguistic style accommodation.

Schultz, D. P., & Schultz, S. E. (2016). Theories of personality. Cengage Learning.

Vecchione, M., Dentale, F., Alessandri, G., Imbesi, M. T., Barbaranelli, C., & Schnabel, K. (2016). On the Applicability of the Big Five Implicit Association Test in Organizational Settings. Current Psychology, 1-10.

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