The paper is a critical review of theoretical criminology written by katja Franko Aas. Today’s world is increasingly globalized and there has been a vast growing network of goods, services, capital and cultures. At the same time, the risk of substances and individuals has gone up with the increasing trend. With the increasing demand for global services and products, a complex relation has been created between between the growing risky world society and the nation-state. With the evolution of time, there has been a flow and variety of transformations in space and time. It is argued that sociology is a much broader dimension than the idea of a static society and nation state and assesses the movements of capital, people, objects, information and risks.
Criminology is a part of sociology and since then has been studied in various forms for over thousands of years. It is only recently that it has been acknowledged as a scientific discipline. The paper provides how globalization, migration and world risk society has influenced crime. The paper provides that new notions in relation to exclusion and social ordering are introduced by the world of flows and local network.
The author in this paper has used concepts of world risk society, global mobility and globalization. A risk society is a systematic approach taken by the society to address future risks and deal with hazards. Global mobility is increasing as individuals are not only seeking it for personal development but also a a basic necessity to look after their families. The author provides that it is not easy for individuals of a backward country to go and work in a developed country legally therefore they the concept of migration, refugees and illegal immigration is growing constantly around the world. The author also provides that globalization has introduced totally new living standards in the society and people often use illegitimate ways to gain access to modern amities leading to the growth of crime in the society. The author provides that the growth of world risk society has had a positive impact on the growth of criminals based on the rational choice theory of criminology.
The author has used exploratory methods to highlight the connection between globalization, world risk society and global mobility with the growing rate of crime. The author provides that the defenses between international and domestic methods are themselves becoming the major sources of injustice. However the author in this case has ignored the fact that international law cannot be compared to domestic law the latter is based on the needs of a particular region and community whereas the former is based on global context. The author provides that restriction of global mobility is one of the major sources with respect to illegal migration and increase of refugee. However against the argument provided by the author it can evidently be said that if restriction on global mobility is not imposed it would result in further increase in crime rates as terrorist would get unrestricted access towards their targets. The impact of different types of crime is different on the society and the author has failed to identify the grater crimes like genocide and other mass killing terrorist activities which may arise if the restrictions would not have been imposed by law.
Migration relates to the variability in the existence of the individuals. This variability contradicts stability, which results in the excavation of imaginative ideas. Emptiness generates criminological ideas within the minds of the individuals. This emptiness is the product of an unstable mind. Asylums can be considered as a broader perspective towards the aspect of criminology. As a matter of specification, provision of proper rehabilitation measures provides the culprits with an escape from the entrapment within crimes. This escape can be correlated with the migration into a new world, which supports the culprits to start their life as a changed person. This perspective bears resemblance with Garland’s proposition, “criminology of the other”. Here, “other” can be the transformed and migrated self of the culprit, which alters his personality. Migration of the culprit from the prison to the asylum acts as an agent in this transformation. Herein, lays the justification of the phrase “securitization”.
These perspectives place criminology and migration, globalization and world risk society are in an equal alignment. Countering this, migration is the agent, which broadens the scope and arena of criminology. One of the typical examples of this fact is the radical transformation in the characteristic traits of the culprit. This transformation attaches the tag of a migratory soul, through which he sails into an altogether different identity, with which he is unfamiliar.
The article has just addressed on side of the story in relation to criminology. It has been very efficient to identify the reasons which influence crime in the society. However the article has failed to prove any clear solution to the problem. In addition the article has not discussed the implication which might arise out of not imposing restriction which has been elaborated by the author in this article. The author through this paper has mainly intended to identify the need to liberalize restrictions imposed on globalization and global mobility and the perception of the world risk society. The paper can be used to address the need to liberalize the restriction but only to an extent which does not increase the bigger crime in the society. In addition the author has not included in this paper that fact that restriction on global mobility and globalization is a problem only in certain countries and not the world as a whole. If a part of the world does not suffer from restrictions imposed by globalization than the assumption that the restrictions are increasing criminal activity cannot be justified. The review of the article can be concluded by stating that the author has only addressed issues in the paper which he intended to address and had deliberately ignored common issues which could easily contradict the evidence provided by the paper.
Aas, K. F. (2013). The borders of punishment: Migration, citizenship, and social exclusion. Oxford University Press.
Lucassen, L. (2013). Population and migration.
Pickering, S., & Ham, J. (2014). The Routledge handbook on crime and international migration. Routledge
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