A kind of belief an adherence for accepting rules more particularly creeds in view of religion. The term means according to the representation in the creeds of the early church is confirming about the Christian faith. The orthodoxy belief started form the Orthodox Church. The church of Orthodoxy was established by Jesus Christ that has described the New Testament. In literal terms the word orthodox means “straight worship” or “straight teaching”. As in early Christian times the encroachments and false teaching was prevailing as a division multiplies, they threatened to obscure the identity and to compare what the church originally believed and practiced with what these groups proclaimed.
Around 1650’s to 1780’s a new revolution started which questioned the authority of traditional lines. In this era intellectual forces emerged all over Western Europe which stressed on individualism, analysis and reason. The traditional reforms were applied with a new view of changing the social structure (Peppin, Cherry and Smith Iltis, 2004). At that time questions aroused about the early beliefs of people regarding theories and opinions which were followed (Venturi, Haskell and Berlin, 2001). Throughout the continent, new notions were generated and were fostered for increasing the literacy among people. There were revolutionary texts by eminent philosophists Voltaire like the letters on English and the dictionary of philosophy. These helped in spreading the enlighten ideals. During French Revolutions some of these ideas proved to be very influencing. During the 19th century the enlighten view of the world paved way all over the world.
Based on the geographical or chronological view scholars of the then period never agreed to the term Enlightenment though the agreed that the revolution is about enlightenment (Wallace, 2009). The history of enlightenment world view began when a dominant constituent became the angle of intellectuality. An eminent Jewish philosopher said that the process which educated a man to use logic is known as enlightenment. While some people supported the thought and defined enlightenment as the inability of human being to utilize the most of his ability of comprehending without following others instruction. It was a phase that supported the development in a progressive way. This phase reasoned and questioned the previous established order. Famous philosopher Kant explained that the world view period of enlightenment was the ultimate coming of age which emancipated the consciousness of human mind for the state of ignorance and immaturity (Kant and Watson, 1901). This view also helped in liberalizing the mind of human at the initial dogmatic state for arguing and ignoring which has been widespread notion at the time. This was the essence which the revolution tried to capture.
The people of this same notion also shared a common set of values through their perspective on philosophy and approaches which were systematic. The goal of the world view of enlightenment was to remove church abuse and pave way to further progress of tolerance. Before the enlighten revolution it was the increased abusive behavior of the religious mind which started torture in the name of religion. Rules were made in view of class discrimination. Those could afford to follow the rule were distinguished in category. This led to the outbreak of revolution in France. Earlier Catholicism was considered as the only religion in state. The Gallican church realized the governance of Pope being the lead of Catholic Church of Rome where they negotiated terms on specific liberties with the privilege of the French Monarchy (Peppin, Cherry and Smith Iltis, 2004). This gave a discrete identity which was characterized by autonomy which was considerable. The Jewish were the minorities at that time and had to tolerate discrimination and injustice in the State (Greenspoon, Hamm & LeBeau, 2000). Significant differences were traced when regional beliefs started to decline. This difference was not only in beliefs but between the genders, the degree of class, poor along with the elites. Growing criticism from eminent philosophers attracted the church during the eighteenth century. In many texts of Shakespeare it and other literature it could be found that the church had a growing violence over the discrimination of people. It was religion who separated the views of the people. Like in Merchant of Venice, the readers could relate with the catholic Christians but at the same time considered the way Shylock was treated for being a Jewish trader.
The Renaissance was a part of this enlightenment view of the world. The Victorian age witnessed many significant changes in theories and approaches. At that Era a group of mathematicians and logic provider emerged with their view (MacCaffrey, 2012). But these views were criticizes and obstructed for further research. Galileo Galelei came with his statement that the earth revolves around its own axis and the sun is stagnant. The holy inquisition had the church denied with this notion believing on the clear statement of the bible that the sun denounces after it moves through the sky. This led Galileo to be prevented from educating and writing his notions. It was a pyrrhic triumph keeping Galileo out of the northern Europe Protestants.
The orthodox doctrine was slowly becoming violent with its policy for imposing the anti theorists and punishing them for going against their view (Carvalho, 2007). There was a difference in the value of two important theorists Rousseau and Voltaire. The monarchy was distracting the traditional views according to Rousseau (Wokler and Garsten, 2012). He shunned the Voltaire courted aristocracy. Voltaire stated that equality was unequal but Rousseau had a different opinion (Mostefai and Scott, 2008). He stated that inequality is not the only option for proper governance. Though they had different view yet they agreed on one thing. They considered that a society can have dangerous consequences on absolute monarchy.
Enlightenment revolution was a historical variance. People everywhere were powerfully oppressed with the development of human rights. To tolerance of mutual religious belief is counseled whenever conflicts erupted on religious belief. A moment when innumerous believers infatuated with the thought of perfect society, the realized the tolerance and common sense was the triumphal solution of idealism. The failure to appreciate growth is partially due to the nature of considering everything for granted. Change is the only notion that must prevail.
Carvalho, J. (2007). Religion and power in Europe. Pisa: PLUS-Pisa University Press.
Greenspoon, L., Hamm, M. and LeBeau, B. (2000). The historical Jesus through Catholic and Jewish eyes. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International.
Kant, I. and Watson, J. (1901). The philosophy of Kant. Glasgow: James Maclehose and sons.
MacCaffrey, J. (2012). History of the Catholic Church from the Renaissance to the French Revolution -- Volume 1. Hamburg: tredition.
Mostefai, O. and Scott, J. (2008). Rousseau and L'infame: Religion, Toleration, and Fanaticism in the Age of Enlightenment (Faux Titre). 7th ed. Editions Rodopi B.V., p.308.
Peppin, J., Cherry, M. and Smith Iltis, A. (2004). Religious perspectives in bioethics. London: Taylor & Francis.
Riskin, J. (2002). Science in the age of sensibility. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Venturi, F., Haskell, F. and Berlin, I. (2001). Roots of revolution. London: Phoenix Press.
Wallace, M. (2009). Enlightening romanticism, romancing the enlightenment. Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate.
Wokler, R. and Garsten, B. (2012). Rousseau, the Age of Enlightenment, and their legacies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
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