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Theories Of Action For Effecting Education Reform Add in library

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1-Post gives a brief overview of subject mentioned in the chapter title.

2-Post gives a clear reflection about the importance of the chapter in becoming a teacher/leader.

3-Post gives clear explanation of how the chapter does or does not provide helpful information in becoming a teacher/leader.

4-Evidence of two responses to postings of other students within the course.

5-All posts and responses are at least one paragraph and written with professional writing standards.?



This chapter discusses the importance of curriculum and the need for bringing about reform to it. The objectives with which schools were established would not be met without the curriculum. This chapter is important for teachers as they play a vital role in designing curriculums. Reform of curriculum is one of the major challenges which education reform faces. The term curriculum owes its origin to a Latin word which bears the meaning of racecourse. Traditionally curriculum meant a list of courses but the definition has changed with the passage of time. It is important for educators to know the meaning of curriculum since only then they will be able to participate actively in its reform. Curriculum came to be defined as a program of studies, a document and even as the planned experiences of a school. No matter whatever definition of curriculum we adopt there is one common aspect, a hidden dimension which all definitions acknowledge. It means the things which are taught implicitly by schools and not explicitly. In 1983 after the National Commission on Excellence in Education published its report stating that the performance of American students has not been satisfactory a series of reforms in the field of education followed. Thomas (2012) supports the above stated view and reiterates the importance of curriculum.


This chapter basically deals with the relationship which exists between school and students. From a reading this chapter it is evident that school and students are very much inter related. School happens to be an institution which has been created for the society, by the society and it is an institution which the society supports. Thus a teacher bears responsibility towards both the society which is its employer and also the students since serving them is the purpose behind the creation of schools. But these two responsibilities conflict each other. The chapter in question provides the ways in which schools influence the society and vice versa. Since time immemorial schools have been influencing society through the following ways; schools inculcate into students the responsibilities he/ she bears towards the society as citizens. Curriculums of schools primarily teach students as to how they are supposed in a democracy. It is believed that educated citizens are indispensible to a democratic country and this purpose of the society is served by the schools which shape students into intellectual citizens. Schools render vocational training the students, through schools students are prepared for future career so that they can easily get jobs in future. Society has a strong impact on schools and it constantly re shapes the school. While designing curriculum educators must try to involve parents into the education process of their children. They need to have clear communication with the parents regarding the children. This chapter is important for the one who intends to be a teacher because if he is aware of above stated facts then he would be able to render the services of a teacher in a better way. Underwood, Razzouk, Hansen & Shute (2011)- this article deals with the importance of the involvement of parents into the education system.


This chapter discusses the historical foundation of the institution of school. It traces the evolution of American education. The early schools came into vogue because of the Puritans as they strongly believed that it s not possible to have a democracy without an educated population. The Latin Grammar School was established in the year 1635 which later came to be known as the Harvard College. It was the belief of the Puritans that the devils would take advantage of the ignorance of their children and exploit them and thus school buildings were erected to educate the children. These were also known as Dame Schools and they were classical in nature. In the eighteenth century need was felt to establish schools which can be less classical and more practical. Benjamin Franklin thus opened the Franklin Academy in Philadelphia. These schools replaced the Latin Grammar Schools. One of the drawbacks of the Franklin school was that it was private and everybody could not afford them. This lead to the establishment of public schools which were free. This chapter also discusses the evolution of the present day curriculum. Since history is at the base of every discipline when one intends to become a teacher he/ she should be well aware of the history underlying the evolution of the system of education. Gatto (2012) this article also talks about the historical foundation of education in America.



This chapter tries to identify the ways by the adoption of which educators can render meaning to education. It begins by highlighting that both the educator as well as the student is not happy with each other. The student feels that educators only put them across oceans of information but does not impart knowledge in the true sense of the term which is the reason why most students remain mediocre. On the other hand, even teachers feel students mostly fail to apply their knowledge and take up risks. The chapter with the help of theories explains the importance of research to be undertaken by educators so as to improve the system of education. These theories may be stated in brief as follows:

Growing research base theory provides that educators should conduct research in order to improve the system of education and should make students part of this research since they are the stake holders.

Science v. Common Sense theory lays down that since common sense approach cannot be relied on in all situations, educators should give priority to research.

Terminological Pitfalls theory states that the present system of education places much reliance on achievements as compared to practical application. Thus the system of education must try to look beyond the barriers of fact by using the tools of concept which is intrinsic to any type of thinking and its importance in education can never be overrated; educators should try and formulate theories of education and lastly models may be used by educators to formulate education plans. Finn, Jr.( 2010) this article lays down the theories for bringing about educational reform.

This chapter gives a good insight for an individual to become a teacher in the true sense of the term.


This chapter reviews certain basic designs of curriculum and gives an insight into examining the curriculum. This chapter is of immense importance to the one who intends to become a teacher as he/ she would be a curriculum planner in future. Teachers should try to formulate such curriculum which draws connection between what is taught, why is it taught, how is it taught and assessment of what a student has learnt. It lays down that educators or teachers must not just try to cover all the material contained in a curriculum but should also make an endeavor to teach the materials covered in the curriculum. The curriculums which the educators design must enable students to draw connection between the various concepts they have learnt. Since this chapter provides curriculum designs for various levels depending upon the age of the students it would be of great help to a prospective teacher as he/ she can draw ideas from the designs provided and design appropriate curriculums in future. The chapter also provides for the advantages and disadvantages of each design which makes it all the more easier for educators to decide on which pattern would be more suitable while they are attempting to design curriculum. McKimm (2013)- this article discusses about various designs of curriculum.



Finn, Jr., C. (2010). Theories of action for effecting education reform.
Gatto, J. (2012). An Underground History of American Education.
McKimm, J. (2013). Curriculum design and development.
Thomas, L. (2012). Re-thinking the importance of teaching: curriculum and collaboration in an era of localism. Rsa.
Underwood, J., Razzouk, R., Hansen, E., & Shute, V. (2011). A Review of the Relationship between Parental Involvement and Secondary School Students Academic Achievement. Education Research International
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