Socialization is a name given sociologists to the life long procedure of inheriting and dissemination of the customs, norms and ideology. It is providing the individual the skill to participate in the society. Behavioural and Evolutionary theories of attachment are two contradictory ideas which tells how a child is attached to the primary care giver. It states there are innate and acquired cognitive abilities developed during the life cycle provided by the biological mechanism and the experiences faced.. To explain the process there are so many theories adapted. Of them the important are the learning theory and the evolutionary theory. In the essay the focus is on both the theories their process, advantages and disadvantages.
Evolutionary theory of socialization is on the nature side which says attachment is biologically innate in a new born (Bereczkei, 2007). It states that the infants cry, smile and laugh as they know they will get a response from the adult. It is biologically inherited and has a critical period of 2.5 years of age. It states infants are more attached to the comforting person who provides protection, support and is basis for future relations. On the contrary the behavioural or the learning theory says it is on the nurture side. It says that attachment is a sequence of the behaviours that are learned from the surrounding environment and they are not at all inborn or innate (Mowere, 2000). It is a learned theory with no critical period and the infants are attached to the sources of food.
The learning theory is based on the concept of classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical Conditioning means the association of the infant for his/her food with the care giver. The care giver provide comfort and fulfil their needs so they become the attachment figure (Ivan et al, 2006). Classical conditioning has the following factors:
Unconditioned stimulus: A stimulus which provokes up a reaction naturally like hunger.
Unconditioned response: A response that happens on its own like salivating.
Conditioned stimulus: This stimulus pairs with the unconditional stimulus but does not cause a unconditioned response.
Conditioned response (CR): It a response that the individual learns.
The Operant Conditioning means the new born leanrs to grab the attention from the adults by smiling, crying or laughing. The response given by the care giver or any other one than turns as a base to them. The condition suggest that the attachment is based on the provision of care and is the most with the one who provides the utmost care (Tolman, Richie &Kailash, 1990).Evolutionary theory sates the survival is the need for attachment. The infant has innate instinct that in order to survive they need to attach to someone. This attachment is developed during the critical period and is learned once in a life time. The critical period is the amount of time which a particular things take to develop (Bjorklund & Pelligrini, 2000). Like a bond with the primary care giver which is mostly mother. It states the humans are born to be social as it is the way of the human species to go on. Like for example parents use high pitch voice to control or to scare their children. This is followed everywhere in the cities to small tribes of the whole world. The evolution theory also has developed some characteristics that are same for the males and the females throughout regardless to their age, ethnic origin, sexual posture etc. Like males are more healthy and females have a patient nature.
The advantages of evolutionary theories are as follows:
The advantages of learning theories are as follows:
At the end it can be said that both the theories have their pros and corns. Both the nature and nurture operate in sequence to influence up the development. They follow a interactive rather than an independent pattern. The aspects and point explained for both of them hold logical and reasonable facts. So, both the theories of attachment are involved for the development of full individual.
Bereczkei T. (2007) Parental impact on development: how proximate factors mediate adaptive plans. In: Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology (Eds. R. Dunbar and L. Barrett. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 255-272.
Bjorklund, D. F., & Pelligrini, A. D. (2000). Child development and evolutionary psychology. Child Development, 71, 1687–1708
Bowrer, G.H. Cognitive psychology: An introduction. In W.K. Estes (Ed.), Handbook of
learning and cognitive processes. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1975.
Buss, D. M. (2008). Evolutionary psychology: The new science of the mind. Boston, MA: Pearson
Ivan, Zs. And Bereczkei T. (2006) parental bonding, risk-takin behavior and life history. Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology 4: 267-275.
Mowrer, O.H. On the dual nature of learning -- A re-interpretation of “conditioning” and “problem-solving.” Harvard Educational Review, 2000, 17, 102-148.
Seward, John P. Conditioning theory. In M.H. Marx (Ed.), Learning: Theories. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1970.
Tolman, E.C., Ritchie, B.F., & Kalish, D. Studies in spatial learning. II Place learning versus response learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1990, 36, 221-226.
For years now, MyAssignmenthelp.com is providing affordable essay help to millions of students worldwide. Our essay assistance services have helped us in assisting students with even the toughest essay assignments. We take pride in the fact that we cater the best assistance to search terms like help me with my essay. We offer affordable services in the fastest way possible. For our fast delivering services, students trust us with their urgent essay assignment needs. Two of our most popular essay writing services are maths essay help and English essay help.
You are required to write a researched argument essay that convinces persuades the reader of your position / stance. This is an academic, researched and referenced do...Read More
Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to elaborate the factors which are considered by individuals before selecting an occupation. Choosing an occupati...Read More
Introduction With the increase enhancement in the field of technology, it has been considered essential by the businesses to implement such technology in their b...Read More
Executive Summary In a merger & acquisition, role of an HR has emerged as a very critical function. At each stage of merger and acquisition process, HR plays a s...Read More
Introduction In this competitive business environment where every business organization is trying to attract the customers of each other, it becomes essential for ...Read More