Discuss about the Theory and Practice of Second Language.
Tenses indicate to us how any action is relative to the time flow. Three main tenses in English are there: present, past and future. These three tenses are then divided into four aspects: simple, continuous, perfect and perfect continuous.
Simple present tense is used for describing habits, unchanging situations, fixed arrangements and general truths. This tense is simple to form, just by using the basic form of the verb.
Tenses can be identified by noticing the changes they take in their forms in accordance with the number and person of the subject.
Simple present tense can be used only for expressing habits, repeated actions, general truths or unchanging situations, wishes and emotions. It is used also for giving instructions or directions.
Practicing making sentences with simple present tense would be helpful in understanding the norms and techniques in this tense.
Context of Teaching Sequence
This task investigates a lesson I taught as of late at Axpea Education Academy. The school is for universal students learning English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) (ACARA - English as an additional language or dialect, 2017). The students are essentially matured in the vicinity of eighteen and twenty-four, and numbers vacillate from roughly a few hundred, with a few students being enlisted for two weeks and others for up to a year. The school has been as of late revamped, and classrooms are agreeable, clean and aerated and cooled. NEAS (National ELT Accreditation Scheme) is the administrative body (NEAS, 2017).
The school distributes students to stages in accordance with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) & Europe, 2017). Classes keep running from stages A1 and A2 (tenderfoot), through B1 and B2 (middle) to C1 to C2 (progressed). Each stage is part into three sub-levels, for instance, A1.1, A1.2 and A1.3.
In this grouping, the fourth of ten lessons, I educated a B1.2 general English class containing thirteen students. To begin with I mostly taught Indian students there. The learning objective, to utilize passive voice with the past simple tense, was taken from the EF Syllabus, and students got to their course book and English Guide (Entityframework Training Syllabus 2017).
Instrumental inspiration is the most usually communicated inspiration amid coordinated meetings, with a few students taking Cambridge or IELTS exams in the not so distant future and many needing to utilize English in their vocation. Student independence is supported, and students have open doors for independently directed investigation incorporated into the timetable. Amid the two months effectively finished, student nervousness and eagerness to convey in the class have enhanced fundamentally. There is a blend of field needy and free students.
Educators frequently need to oversee student desires, for instance, arrangement in levels lower than anticipated, yet we strive to set up affinity with our students (Robertson, 2013). On leaving, most students' composed assessments indicate extraordinary fulfilment with their course and instructors. We now and again need to adjust courses or bring additional care with students who have unique instructive needs, and we guarantee students under eighteen are sheltered and going to school.
Lessons are part between two days with a poor start and three days with an encouraging start. There is small timetabling weight on the students. Educators are relied upon to instruct in a student focused style, with periodic instructor focused exercises, and students react well to this (Cheon et al., 2012).
This particular chapter is to review the literature of the study. The method of the teaching sequence used in this particular study is the teaching method used in Axpea Education Academy. Vocabulary is always noted as an important part of language and to achieve broader success one must have the knowledge of English vocabulary. It is seen that the number of words that the students know and the knowledge of grammar that they have is average. Grammar is a tough term and for the Indian students it is very hard part of their course. The research on the condition of the first language clearly describes the fact that they have proper knowledge about that there is no existing problem that they have in their first language (Cheon et al., 2012). The teaching method at Axpea Education Academy included teaching of English as a second language to the Indian students. The objective of the teaching method adapted was to increase the use of simple present tense and teaching the students the basic knowledge of grammar. Grammar is known to be the rules in either the structure of the words or the word order in any sentences. The objective is to make the students learn the ‘rules’ which is definitely a tough task. The involvement of the Indian students in the learning process of English grammar is important and hence the teachers need to introduce innovative ways to involve the students in their learning process. There are many relevant theories regarding teaching of grammar to the students, the two basic theories are Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory, and Krashen’s teaching of second language theory. Both the theories denote ways that can be used by the teachers to teach grammar and tense of English to the students (Gardner, 2015). Gardner states many intelligence theories that can be used as methods for teaching tense to the students and the two most common intelligence used from his theory are linguistics and logical- mathematical theory. However, the use of musical- rhythmic one can be a good and innovative method and this will eventually grab the interest of the students for learning tense. The Indian students will get more attracted to out of syllabus things and in this modern era students do not like reading text books much hence it is best to teach them tense using some creative method. Krashen’s theory is all about the acquisition of the second language and the grammar and not by forcefully making them learn the tense and language (Chun & Frodesen, 2014). There are many past researches, which are conducted to check the efficiency of applying of various methods for teaching grammar and tense to the students. Those researches state that the knowledge of grammar is less among the students whose first language is not English and to teach them grammar there is adaption of many methods (Borg, 2015). The teachers are often needed to understand the level of grammar and tense knowledge and bring a balance of communication and grammar learning among the Indian students. The methods in which the result of this study is concluded are the involvement of the participants that are the students the next is the instrumentation and this stage includes the different strategies used for conducting the study. There was pretest and posttest that helped the teachers of Axpea Education Academy to evaluate the difference of knowledge level of the Indian students about tense. The study stated that teaching of grammar improves the competence level of the students. The study also highlights the point that the teaching process of tense must include the focus on the performance and involvement of the students. The Indian Students are never much interested in learning English grammar from a book and hence the teaching process can include the interaction process so that the students can enhance their knowledge by interacting with the teachers.
There are many debates about how English grammar and tense should be taught to the Indian students and the basic methods that can be commonly used are drawing the students attention to the learning process and secondly teaching grammar in a way, which the students can exercise later. The teaching of grammar can be in a process of PPP or presentation-practice-produce. The teachers will have to teach grammar to the students in a presentable way, which the student will like and practice and afterwards produce the use of the same somewhere else. Often there is a partiality in the teaching process of first and second language, first language is taught with very much care and consideration and the second language not with the same and equal involvement. Hence, Indian students get an average idea about second language and for the students who have English as their second language it becomes very tough to coordinate, as English is a common language across the globe. Grammar is an integral part of English language and the students lack in English grammar and have no proper idea about the use of tense in sentences. Thus, teaching English grammar becomes necessary. In every class, there will be mistakes in grammar made by students be it in construction of sentence or in speaking about some past activity. The only one that can be addressed is the ones that are noticed. A school must take the consideration of teaching the Indian students English grammar in a way they will be accustomed to learn. It is not about what and how the method will be used. It is all about using a method for the execution of teaching grammar. Keeping Krashen’s acquisition theory in mind it is recommended that it is better to start teaching to the students who want to learn grammar otherwise the teaching will not be of any use. There is always a difference in the students need and providing of the teachers. That is why it is better to find out the effects of the methods that are applied for teaching grammar to the students. The work of teaching the students grammar of second language is a tough work and it is harder for the students because they do not properly have the idea about language and forcing them to learn initially leads to loss of interest. The main problem the learners have about English is the tense use. Some Indian students agree that they have problem in the use of tense and some do not agree that they have problem in using past tense in sentence. It is all about the learning interest, which the students represent and the responsibility that the teachers perform. The basic problem statements of this study are the low confidence and motivation level of the Indian students who have English as their second language and they have a problem of speaking in English. This study is also about the use of past tense among the Indian students as it is seen that they cannot frame a proper sentence in past tense and often faces problem regarding that. The study is conducted to check the methods that can be used to teach the students grammar of English language. This study specifies some ideas, which will attract the students to learn English and grammar. Instrumental inspiration is eventually the most communicated inspiration, with a few students taking exams in for future development and many teaching methods to utilize English in their vocation.
The grammar translation method or any other important methods can be useful for teaching the Indian students English grammar, which will provide the students with the broad knowledge of tense. The approach of this study is to develop the students’ knowledge about English grammar (Yule, 2016). In the conducted study, it is seen that the students have a problem in speaking English and using tense while speaking about some past activities. The social interaction with the students is an easy method to teach the students the grammar of English language. Another method that can be used is to teach the students both the language and the grammar with equal efficiency and this can only be done by involving the students in the learning process. This study shows that there is a need to decrease the gap of the Indian students with English as a second language and increase their knowledge of grammar (Smith & Candlin, 2014). The Indian students often have a problem accepting their mistakes in speaking of any past activities and this can be exposed by helping them to learn the language with their own interest. The theory of Krashen and Gardner will be helpful for this context. Motivating the Indian students is also important, as without that no student will be eager to learn. Hence, the teachers must motivate the Indian students so that they can be involved in the learning process and this can be done by any means either by asking them to read in the class or by conducting class of interaction to help the Indian students get a broad knowledge about the English grammar and English as well.
I feel that the lesson satisfied its learning objective. Perception based developmental appraisal showed that the students comprehended the frame and utilization of the linguistic use point. The most widely recognized blunders were utilizing the wrong type of "be" or choosing a wrong verb frame or non-existent past participle, for example, "scorched" as opposed to 'sung'. I kept on rehearsing this syntax point with them during the time amid lesson warm-ups, and furthermore focused on students for singular offer assistance.
The students accomplished tasteful outcomes in their unit tests on Friday (see the informative supplement), which raised two purposes of intrigue:
1) Most students were exceptionally effective at changing over from active to passive voice when advised to do as such.
2) Students were less effective when they were made a request to pick accurately amongst active and passive voice. At the point when not trained whether to utilize passive or active voice, students endeavoured to utilize logical signs, for example, different words in the sentence, for instance seeing "by" or the verb 'to be'.
I believe that students can comprehend rules identifying with shape, however require introduction to the right use of the language through continuous presentation to informative errands after some time.
It would be fascinating if our summative appraisal, which happens at regular intervals, put more concentrate on whether students keep on being effective utilizing shown sentence structure focuses after introduction, or in the event that they lose the advance they have made. Tragically, right now, all students in this specific school which works overall take a finish of level test which does not really incorporate the linguistic use educated, so we can't as of now research this or reach any determinations.
Successful Aspects of the Sequence
I believed that that the informative stages filled their need as they enabled the students to work on talking utilizing passive voice. I heard students self-redressing, adjusting each other and clarifying why botches had been made. I feel that the content based exercises were effective in that that they gave students a minute for calm reflection and individual work.
Aspects That I Would Change in The Future
I feel that I presumably endeavoured to pack in excessively, and maybe hurried the students to some degree. In future, I will back the pace off. Likewise, the sentences in the underlying talking movement were generally presented in active voice. In future, I might want to figure out how to consolidate passive sentences. I might likewise want to try different things with utilizing the lexical approach as a strategy for educating structures. I would be intrigued to know how the students would react to it.
Taking everything into account, I feel upbeat to have discovered that a portion of the things I have been doing as an instructor have an establishing in instructive research. It has been extremely fascinating to get some answers concerning the historical backdrop of classroom methodologies, strategies and procedures, and I am truly anticipating joining a portion of the new things I have learned into my own instructional method and enhancing my educating practice.
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