According to the research of Morrison et al., (2018), the software system is very important for an organization, and the vulnerabilities in the software application can risk the business operation, business services, consumer trust, and intellectual property. Software security involves external attacks and internal weakness in which the agents of external trade can break the software system by exploiting the software vulnerabilities. The common vulnerabilities help to recognize the weakness during the life cycle of the software application. Security metrics indicate the quantifiable and objective way to track compliance and progress to avoid lawsuits and breaches. A Scorecard of a security system can make a security system very simple to monitor across the whole digital ecosystem.
According to the research of Longueira-Romerc et al., (2020), security metrics indicate the control effectiveness to measure the process of control in an effective way. This helps to gather the process of quality assurance and refer to various types of testing to understand the performance testing in an effective way. The scientific basis for the security matrix focuses on the security of a computer system and proposes a high-level taxonomy of security metrics for the companies based on ICT products (Pope et al., 2018). The authors provide an overview of the security measurement and propose some possible research areas, including the techniques of artificial intelligence and security measurement models. Different types of surveys are required for different security metrics, and that is applicable to the software design. This will be effective for an organization compared with different approaches to security properties, including confidentiality and authenticity.
Importance of Software System Security Metrics
According to the research of Bodei et al., (2020), the security metrics is very important for an organization as it helps to offer insight and a better understanding of the information security program. This program also helps to increase the knowledge of various types of threats. With the help of this program, organizations can understand how much employees are required for security purposes and how much money is required to decrease the risk of threat tolerance. The system of cybersecurity is changing day by day, and organizations are required to address the security threats with some new approaches. A holistic approach is required rather than the ad hoc responses (Bindra & Sood, 2019). Security mattresses help an organization to determine the working process with the improvement required for the business of that organization, including their technologies, processes, and security policies. The security system is very important for an organization as it can secure the confidential data of a business process of an organization. This can help to increase the reputation of an organization in the marketplace and also helps to maintain the brand value of that organization in the marketplace. This also helps to measure the cybersecurity program is maintaining compliance and accomplishing the goals.
According to the research of Savola & Savolainen, (2018), the evaluation of the vulnerability can play the main role for the risk management and the security posture. The common scoring system of vulnerability can provide the tool to quantify the risk and severity of a vulnerability of an asset of the information in the computing environment. The common scoring system of vulnerability is designed for three groups, including base metrics that help measure the fundamental and intrinsic characteristics of vulnerabilities, temporal metrics that help to measure the vulnerabilities attributes, and the environmental Matrix that has to measure the characteristics of the vulnerability. Some best metrics can capture the fundamental features of a vulnerability, including access vector that helps to measure the process in which a vulnerability can be exploited, access complexity that helps to measure the complexity of cyberattack that is required to exploit a vulnerability when the attacker can gain access to a target system, authentication that helps to measure that attacking numbers and based on that authenticate the target to exploit a vulnerability, and confidentiality impact that helps to measure the overall impact on the confidentiality of the exploited vulnerability. The scoring method calculates metrics based on the equation, which can provide the rank or score from 0 to 10. When the environmental score is required, the environmental equation can combine the metrics of an environment with a temporal score to produce the score with standard ranges.
Software Security Metrics
According to the research of Ani, He & Tiwari, (2018), the measurement is required for the security of the software application that can provide the improvement and evaluation of the processes and products of software application. The management of an organization can measure the security level. Management can assume to buying inexpensive controls is far better than buying an expensive one. But the security tools are required to buy which is more expensive to avoid cyberattacks in which organizations have to make a solution including intrusion detection system and firewall to secure the network and confidential data from cyberattacks. And after that, the company has to buy the policies for security which leads to spending more money. Because of this version, the program of security metrics is required to be built to allow for new approaches for the problems of traditional security metrics (Keramati & Halataei, 2020). A scientifically-based approach and systematic approach to the security metrics can be applied to the wide range portion of an organization, helps to determine the required resources to apply to the security program, and also helps to determine the progress from the security program. Some improvements can be made for software security with the process to define the security system of a software application. Some formulas are required for defining the software security metrics, which are based on the weakness of a software application. Organizations have to recognize the weakness of the software application, and then they can represent and incorporate severity weakness into security metrics. Security metrics are very important to information security because security metric is a very important tool that helps to calculate the system level and security strength with processes and products. Common vulnerability enumerations (CVE) and common weakness and exposures (CWE) can provide the source for the software security metrics.
Ani, U. P. D., He, H., & Tiwari, A. (2018). A framework for Operational Security Metrics Development for industrial control environment. Journal of Cyber Security Technology, 2(3-4), 201-237. https://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/140845/8/OSMD_Framework_for_ICS_Accecpted_.pdf
Bindra, N., & Sood, M. (2019). Why, what and how to measure and improve the security of networks (a snapshot of the current situation of security metrics and the way forward). International Journal of Security and Networks, 14(3), 158-166. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Naveen_Bindra/publication/334727908_Why_what_and_how_to_measure_and_improve_the_security_of_networks_a_snapshot_of_the_current_situation_of_security_metrics_and_the_way_forward/links/5e5df176a6fdccbeba147ecb/Why-what-and-how-to-measure-and-improve-the-security-of-networks-a-snapshot-of-the-current-situation-of-security-metrics-and-the-way-forward.pdf
Bodei, C., Degano, P., Ferrari, G. L., & Galletta, L. (2020). Security Metrics at Work on the Things in IoT Systems. In From Lambda Calculus to Cybersecurity Through Program Analysis (pp. 233-255). Springer, Cham. https://arpi.unipi.it/bitstream/11568/1031653/1/ChrisMain.pdf
Keramati, M., & Halataei, F. S. (2020). Innovative Cyber-Security Metrics for Intrusion Prevention. https://i4c.iust.ac.ir/UPL/Paper18/i4c18-1041.pdf
Longueira-Romerc, Á., Iglesias, R., Gonzalez, D., & Garitano, I. (2020, July). How to quantify the security level of embedded systems? a taxonomy of security metrics. In 2020 IEEE 18th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN) (Vol. 1, pp. 153-158). IEEE. https://arxiv.org/pdf/2112.05475
Morrison, P., Moye, D., Pandita, R., & Williams, L. (2018). Mapping the field of software life cycle security metrics. Information and Software Technology, 102, 146-159. https://phasechange.ai/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/mapping-the-field-of-software-life-cycle-security-metrics.pdf
Pope, A. S., Morning, R., Tauritz, D. R., & Kent, A. D. (2018, July). Automated design of network security metrics. In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference Companion (pp. 1680-1687). https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3205651.3208266
Savola, R. M., & Savolainen, P. (2018, September). Risk-driven security metrics development for software-defined networking. In Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Software Architecture: Companion Proceedings (pp. 1-5). https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3241403.3241461?casa_token=v-MSQW4KhTYAAAAA:5lUajyU6fDyQ26yqhE8_16LJ1Vo1kjAQ33cu2llaS_i76Uu2_8-A_4qdzcAFbqdHrzZTiXRf118M_0A