1.Bar chart is another method for representing project schedule in the form of chart. It consists of consists of two axis in the diagram. One axis refers to amount of time spent in the project and other axis represent activities performed in the project (Taher et al., 2017). The activities are shown in the form of bar, hence the name bar chart.
The precedence diagram refers to a method where projects activities are presented in visual form. In order to create a precedence diagram it is necessary to define all the project activities (Saket et al., 2017). Then dependency of each and every task needs to be clearly specified. Once the activities are defined along with the dependencies of activities, this dependency along with the activity details are then visually represented in the form a diagram which is known as precedence diagram. It basically gives a clear and detailed description of the sequence in which the activities should be performed to accomplish the project activities. Hence it is an effective method for project scheduling.
Addition of newer tasks to the diagrams:
Activities are easier to add in preceding diagram rather than bar chart and the reason for the same has been described in details in the following section (Taher et al., 2017).
- First of all the major limitation of bar chart is that it does not clearly specifies the dependencies that might exist between various activities of the project (Saket et al., 2017). Hence it is not possible to add new tasks in the chart as dependencies are not clear. This means even if new task is added, it is not possible to effectively define the position of the new task in the chart. Whether preceding diagram has the ability to properly define the sequence of the task, it is possible to add new task effectively in the chart.
- Preceding diagram is designed in such a way that it can show how tasks that need to be completed concurrently are actually connected. Hence it is possible to know variation and impact of variation on various tasks already defined in the schedule (Taher et al., 2017). Hence it is easier to depict the changes and its impact in the preceding diagram.
Even though in the bar chart, activities that need to be conducted simultaneously are depicted with concurrent parallel lines with overlapping time schedule, it does not specify whether these tasks are dependent or independent (Saket et al., 2017). Hence it is difficult to represents the impact of change associated with the addition of newer tasks in the bar chart.
These two facts specify that the addition of newer tasks are easier and effective in case of preceding diagram rather than bar chart.
2.Scheduling network is the method of designing the schedule for the project and define activities that need to be executed in sequence to complete a project. Now there are various constraints that affect the scheduling network. Two of the constraints have been described here through examples (Costantino, Di Gravio & Nonino, 2015):
If there is resource constraints then it impact the project schedule. Once the schedule has been developed with scheduling network, resources have to be allocated as per the schedule, otherwise the scheduling network has to be again stretched and each of the activities in the schedule has to be modified as well. For example if someone wants to open a store, the construction part has to be finished first, then staff has to be hired. Now if the construction is delayed due to limitations of resource, the whole project has to be delayed and activities have to be delayed as well which is already defined by the scheduling network (Costantino, Di Gravio & Nonino, 2015).
Time constraint is another important aspect that affect the performance of scheduling network. For example if a construction project has some activities that are related to critical path, then those are the tasks where time variation has to be as low as possible. Now if those tasks are not completed as per the scheduled time, then other activities of the schedule is not possible to be completed as it will affect the overall project execution (Fuller et al., 2017). In this case, the scheduling network has to be properly modified and in some case has to be redesigned completely if possible.
As discussed, these two constraints, resource constraints and time constraints have an adverse effect on the scheduling network.
3.One example of procurement activity is to set proper agreement between two organization and vendor party. It is a valuable addition to the network, especially for projects where resource constraint is an issue (De Araújo et al., 2017). For example a valid terms and conditions for procurement assures that the resource are available in the project and the chances of project delay is less. Without a valid terms and condition it is not possible for the organization to claim anything if there is some issue.one of the main issue in procurement is delay in resource delivery, if proper term and conditions is not designed and agreed during the procurement deal, it will not be possible for the organization to claim any disputes.
However procurement activity of vendor selection has less merit if considered for including with the network. A vendor is selected based on reputation, experience and preference in the market. But that does not assure that the procurement deal will be effective for the project (De Araújo et al., 2017). For example, if a reputed vendor is selected for the project, but the vendor delays in resource delivery, then the project will be delayed due to lack of resources. Hence election of vendor as a part of procurement activities is not as effective as designing appropriate terms and condition for the procurement plan. Hence it has less merit for inclusion in the scheduling network developed for the project.
Costantino, F., Di Gravio, G., & Nonino, F. (2015). Project selection in project portfolio management: An artificial neural network model based on critical success factors. International Journal of Project Management, 33(8), 1744-1754.
De Araújo, M. C. B., Alencar, L. H., & de Miranda Mota, C. M. (2017). Project procurement management: A structured literature review. International Journal of Project Management, 35(3), 353-377.
Fuller, M. A., Valacich, J. S., George, J. F., & Schneider, C. (2017). Information Systems Project Management: A Process and Team Approach, Edition 1.1. Prospect Press.
Saket, B., Kim, H., Brown, E. T., & Endert, A. (2017). Visualization by demonstration: An interaction paradigm for visual data exploration. IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, 23(1), 331-340.
Taher, F., Jansen, Y., Woodruff, J., Hardy, J., Hornbæk, K., & Alexander, J. (2017). Investigating the use of a dynamic physical bar chart for data exploration and presentation. IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, 23(1), 451-460.