Discuss about the Total Quality Management in Education System.
Managing people is an essential skill that needs to be taken up by any business organization in order to manage the employees effectively. Team and teamwork plays an important role in any business organization. However, working in team does not necessarily highlight the fact that there is teamwork, within the team. This assignment highlights the discussion in the article by Callaghan and Thompson (2004), that focuses on the call centre industry. The report describes how call centres work in teams, yet without much teamwork. The issues that might be faced by the organization, in management of people due to the lack of teamwork in call centres have also been discussed in this assignment. Discuss how the organisation of call centre work into teams does not necessarily mean there will be teamwork.
Working in teams is an integral part of any business organization. This facilitates the work, along with enhancing the productivity of the employees (Chicu et al. 2016). Working in team and assisting the teammates helps in improving the quality of work in the organization as well. However, working in teams does not necessarily mean that there is teamwork within the team and among the members. Call centres are an important industry in UK and Australia. This is an environment in which the people work in team, but the task is based on individual capabilities and skills, with very less scope of teamwork (Crowley et al. 2014). The work in a call centre is mainly technology based with interaction with the clients and customers using information communication and technology (ICT) systems (Van den Broek et al. 2004). The employees have individual systems with computers and required ICT supports such that they are able to communicate and work with the clients (Ebrahim 2015).
A team is perceived as a collection of 10-12 members, working towards achievement of the same goal, and having dependencies on each other (Goebel et al. 2015). The team members have a common working time as well as a common working strategy, and each members has to abide by the agreed upon ways of working. Moreover, in context of teamwork, the efforts of each of the members assist in achievement of a single goal (Crowley et al. 2014). However, while considering call centres, the employees work in different shifts and in weekly rotation basis. Members of the same team have working hours flexibility and in different shifts. Moreover, each individual employee has a specific goal to achieve with the skill that the particular employees posses. Thus, a call centre has very limited opportunity of teamwork.
As contradicted by (Van den Broek et al. 2004), the view presented above might not be always true. There is much scope of teamwork in call centres for development and training. While the training needs of each of the employees are identified, teamwork and assistance among each other might result in enhancement of the skills of the employees (Van den Broek et al. 2004). Moreover, there is much scope for exchange and sharing of information among the employees, regarding the issues faced by the customers. Moreover, while one of the employees has faced similar situation, assistance might be sought from that employee, to deal with similar situations in a better way. Moreover, as argued by (Hopper et al.2014), there is scope of discussion and assistance among the employees regarding the use of a particular technology, thus enhancing teamwork among the call centre employees.
As argued by (Chicu et al. 2016), call centres mainly present a wide scope of individual work and a similar kind of work is done every day, by the employees. This routine work among the employees reduces the scope of teamwork (Crowley et al. 2014). While considering a banking sector call centres, some of the employees deal with the customer’s transactions and balance, while others deal with problems and issues that the customers face (Hu and Liden 2015). However, the employees who deal with the account deals and the one dealing with the customer complaints are fixed. Thus, their work is largely a routine work with least scope of variety and teamwork. Even if the employees exchange information, it is of least importance to the other employee of a different domain. Thus, the scope of teamwork is reduced.
Another reason why working in teams does not necessarily mean teamwork in case of call centres is the dependency on the ICT. The information and communication systems of the call centres are the major assistants to the employees. All queries are answered by the extensive use if ICT itself. Moreover, the ICT systems usually stresses upon self-service by providing help options and menus (Crowley et al. 2014). Thus, even if a call centre employee needs assistance, the employee prefers referring to the computer and Internet systems rather than taking assistance from the teammates. Thus, reducing the scope of effective teamwork in call centres.
However, as the employees are recruited one of the essential criteria that is tested for is the quality of being team players. The quality of being a good team player is sough while the recruitment process is done (Van den Broek et al. 2004). However, in reality the members work as pseudo-teams rather than actual teams. Thus, the fact is clearly highlighted that though call centre workers work in teams, yet does not need actual teamwork. The solutions are provided by the extensive use of ICT, rather than seeking help from the team members. To what extent does this pose a problem for people management, and what are the key issues in maximising the benefits of teams and teamwork for both employees and the organisation?
Problem in people management due to lack of teamwork:
Team and teamwork plays an important role in enhancing the management of the people in the organizations. In case of call centres, the employee work in teams but does not exhibit much teamwork. This might impose a major issue in management of the people. The normative behaviour of the employees of the call centre leads to the explanation that while the employees work in teams, teamwork is also necessary in management of the people efficiently (Crowley et al. 2014). While working in teams, the employees are used to work in a collaborative manner along with supporting the needs of each other and empathetic behaviour. Thus, while management of the employees; these qualities assist the management to ensure positive organizational behaviour as well as organizational citizenship behaviour (Van den Broek et al. 2004).
However, in context of call centres, since the employees do not engage in much teamwork, hence it is difficult for the management to ensure positive workplace environment along with ensuring organizational citizenship behaviour (Procter and Radnor 2017). The positive organizational citizenship behaviour is achieved with successful teamwork among the employees. Thus, the problems due to the lack of teamwork include lack of efficient management of the employees along with lack of positive workplace environment (Turner 2014). Moreover, the fine qualities in the employees that are developed due to effective teamwork is also not available among the employees, thus resulting in mismanagement of the people. Thus, in order to have an efficient management, it is essential to exhibit teamwork among the employees (Crowley et al. 2014). Lack of teamwork reduces the rate of employee retention and employee satisfaction in the organization. However, in case of call centres, the scope of teamwork is reduced and might result in mismanagement of the workforce of the organization.
Key issues in maximising the benefits for employees and organization:
With the lack of teamwork among the teams, the organization faces various issues in maximizing the benefits to the employees as well as the organization (Crowley et al. 2014). The key issues that are faced in maximizing the benefits for the organization are as follows:
Lack of OCB: With no teamwork among the members of the call centre employees, lack OCB. This is because the employees do not develop the qualities to empathic learning and support among themselves, thus failing in development of the OCB (Mawer 2014). Since this behaviour is a prompt one, hence, it is developed from effective teamwork.
Lack of efficient management: Due to the lack of efficient management of the in the organization, the employee retention might be reduced along with degradation in the productivity (Potosky and Duck 2014). Thus, the efficiency of the management of the employees is reduced due to the lack of teamwork among the teams (Van den Broek et al. 2004).
Lack of socialization: With lack of effective teamwork, socialization among the employees is not achieved and results in lack of positive workplace environment (Massenberg et al. 2015).
The key issues in maximizing the benefits of the employees include the following:
Absence of team identity: Due to lack absence of teamwork, the employees of the call centre might feel the absence of team identity or team leader (Maxwell 2013). This lack of identify and lack of teamwork might result in lack of motivation and commitment towards the assigned task.
Difficulty in decision-making: Due to the lack of teamwork, the employees of call centres might face difficulty in decision-making. Though it is true that in case of call centre employees most of the solution is obtained with the use of ICT, however, there might be some decisions that would need assistance of the team members (Kozlowski et al. 2015). Thus, lack of teamwork would result in difficulty of the employees.
Lack of effective communication: The lack of teamwork might result in lack of communication among the employees. Lack of effective communication gives rise to misunderstandings and misinterpretation among the employees (Crowley et al. 2014). The lack of effective communication is not desirable at a workplace, since this degrades the productivity, along with reduction in the positivity of the workplace (Van den Broek et al. 2004).
Inability to resolve conflicts: Teamwork enhances qualities among the employees such as providing assistance, empathetic working, motivating each other and resolution of conflicts (Sallis 2014). Thus, lack of effective teamwork results in inability to resolve conflicts. Since the employees do not work in team, hence, the employees do not feel the urge of resolution of conflicts.
Lack of development of team spirit: Team spirit is effectively developed during teamwork among the employees. However, lack of effective team work results in lack of development of team spirit (Levi 2015). The team spirit is an effective quality that needs to be developed by the employees such that they can work efficiently.
Lack of responsibility: Working as a team enhances the quality of being responsible for the tasks assigned. However, lack of teamwork among the employees result lack of development of the sense of responsibility (Van den Broek et al. 2004). The sense of responsibility is not developed without active teamwork. However, in case of employees of call centre, teamwork is not exhibited, due to the limited scope of teamwork (Van den Broek et al. 2004).
The above mentioned issues are the key factors that hinders the problem of people management. These issues also hinder the maximization of the benefits of the employees as well as the organization.
Management of people is an effective activity in the business organization. Teamwork has a key role to play in the management of the people. The article highlights the fact that working in teams does not necessarily mean teamwork. The scenario of call centres have been highlighted in this assignment where the employees work in team but does not exhibit teamwork. The key issues that have been identified that hinders the maximization of the benefits of the employees as well as the organization includes lack of enhancement of productivity, lack of employee satisfaction, lack of development of team spirit as well as the sense of responsibilities. Thus, it might be concluded that working in teams does not necessarily mean that there is teamwork among the employees. For the employees of call centre, there is least scope for teamwork, as the employees have personalized duties and are assisted by the ICT. Thus, with reduced chances teamwork, the employees work in teams but do not exhibit teamwork.
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