Simply defined, a system of management based on the principle that every member of staff must be committed to maintaining high standards of work in every aspect of a company's operations. The basic fundamental approach of Total Quality Management (TQM) is to focuses on end-to-end operation management processes. Toyota Inc. is one of the early adaptor or the principles of TQM. In fact, after Toyota start practicing TQM principles, a lot of other companies in automobile sector and other industries have learned from the TQM implementation at Toyota. There would always be certain differences between the TQM principles for two organizations, as the end objective for organizations would differ (Wang & Chen, 2012). It is highly possible that the TQM objectives of the organizations in manufacturing industry may not be same as the TQM objectives of the organizations in consumer good sector. The objective of this paper is to discuss the Total Quality Management for Toyota and Apple.
For Toyota, the principle of Total Quality Management focuses on customers. Customers are the ultimate decision maker in terms of quality measurement (Lau, 2016). Organization can improve the quality of the products or services by buying new tools or improving hardware/software or by training employees in various courses & industry expertise. The second principle of TQM for Toyota signifies the involvement of all the employees in the quality improvement process. The management needs to provide good working environment so that there is no fear in the employees and they are empowered. This occurs when self-managed teams are formed. Integration of daily business operation with new work systems is critical to achieve the goal of high quality (Rai, 2015). The third principle of TQM for Toyota is to make the whole approach, process centered. The TQM philosophy for as used by Toyota can be shown as:
There are four basic tools of Total Quality Management that are used by Toyota. These are ‘Cause and Effective Diagram’, ‘Control Chart’, ‘Histogram’, and ‘Pareto Chart’. Toyota has been using the principles of Total Quality Management for strategic planning and strategic decision-making. At Toyota, the principles of Total Quality Management are deeply linked with the strategic planning concepts like lean management and six-sigma. This eventually, enables Toyota to provide an excellent customer experience (Espin, 2013).
The objective of Apple Inc. is to use TQM to keep employee motivated and satisfied. The communication at the public forums and employee meeting are great source of motivation in the team and people of the firm. Similarly there are many organization level factors that influence TQM. The top-level people should be committed to implement TQM without being a hindrance in actual work being done by the employees. The senior management of Apple believes that communication is the key to establish a system of Total Quality Management. The principles of Total Quality Management enable Apple to establish an open culture of trust and innovation. With the focus on TQM, Apple Inc. has been able to minimize the waste in the overall supply chain. Apple Inc. has been able to obtain a balance between efficiency and responsiveness with the focus on TQM principles. With a framework of Total Quality Management, Apple Inc. has been able to bring all the stakeholders together. When an organization is able to include all stakeholders in the strategic planning and leaves room for self-improvement the employees are able to see what’s in it for them (Lazaroiu, 2015). The ultimate objective of Apple is to provide high quality products to customers. Apple Inc. also uses the four basic tools of Total Quality Management. These are ‘Cause and Effective Diagram’, ‘Control Chart’, ‘Histogram’, and ‘Pareto Chart’.
There are certain basic differences between the TQM principles as used by Toyota and Apple. Toyota uses TQM principles to focus on product quality and cost optimization. On the other hand, Apple focuses on stakeholders’ management and product management. With the implementation of Total Quality Management, both the companies are able to minimize the wastage in the system. In fact, the optimize supply chain management of Toyota has emerged as one of the biggest strength of the company. The comparison of TQM principles of Toyota and Apple Inc. would show that Toyota has matured TQM system in place (Ertosun, 2012). With the focus on TQM principles, Toyota has been able to bring all the internal and external stakeholders on a common platform. It is expected that the market players would continue to use TQM for various purposes such as operations management, supply chain management, quality management and waste elimination. Going forward, the Information Technology would also play a critical role in the implementation of TQM principles. The large organizations like Toyota and Apple have already integrated TQM with ERP (Employee Resource Planning) systems.
The above paper discusses the Total Quality Management principles for Toyota and Apple Inc. With the above discussion it can be said that that quality is the superior prospect in any organization and customers are the kings as they make the ultimate judgment. Similarly a transformational leader and encouraging management bring the best out of employees. Empowered employees and their confidence in the system are the most essential parts of TQM, as they make the products and service a reality. Continuous up gradation of employee’s capabilities through training and activities is also important. Organization identity and agenda also molds the TQM process. A well-defined job description boosts confidence and motivation in the employees. In terms of comparison between Toyota and Apple, it can be said that Toyota has more matured system of Total Quality Management.
Gimenez-Espin, J.A., Jiménez-Jiménez, D. and Martínez-Costa, M., 2013. Organizational culture for total quality management. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 24(5-6), pp.678-692.
Lazaroiu, G., 2015. Employee Motivation and Job Performance. Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations, (14), pp.97-102.
Sinha, N., Garg, A. K., & Dhall, N. (2016). Effect of TQM principles on performance of Indian SMEs: the case of automotive supply chain. The TQM Journal, 28(3), 338-359.
Valmohammadi, C., & Roshanzamir, S. (2015). The guidelines of improvement: Relations among organizational culture, TQM and performance. International Journal of Production Economics, 164, 167-178.
Wang, C.H., Chen, K.Y. and Chen, S.C., 2012. Total quality management, market orientation and hotel performance: The moderating effects of external environmental factors. International Journal of Hospitality Management,31(1), pp.119-129.
Zehir, C., Ertosun, Ö.G., Zehir, S. and Müceldilli, B., 2012. Total quality management practices’ effects on quality performance and innovative performance. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 41, pp.273-280.
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