Tourism planning and development is the vital process of setting up of a goal, selecting different methods and course of actions to attain those goals, implementing those methods and assess the choice of methods to find out if it turned out to be a success or not. Tourism is operated by owners of three categories- government, non- profit organization and private commercial enterprises (Cooper, 2013). This assignment consists of the tourism planning of Clipper Bay town.
A proper planning can upgrade and improve tourism where it is necessary. Tourism planning looks after the social, political, economic, psychological, technological and anthropological factors. Planning for tourism is important as it pays attention to every single factor (Telfer & Sharpley, 2015). The Clipper Bay area has a population of five thousand and they are living there from three generations. They have a potential for financial growth because of their means of livelihood which are fishing and a rich heritage and culture which are being maintained by the native people of the area. Budgets of approximate $50 million need to be used for sustainable development plans which have viability and power to upgrade the community by giving opportunities to the rising population. Tourism industry takes care of the needs, wants and comfort of the travelers, their comfort and luxury is what gets the prime importance. Overcrowding, pollution, traffic congestion are the negative physical impacts of tourism. Human impacts include losing cultural identities, disliking the tourists by local people and unawareness about the benefits of tourism. The market is affected by tourism as a result of insufficient capitalization, decreased market share and insufficient cooperative advertising among the operators (Lee, 2013).
In tourism, the stakeholders are national and local governments, tourism enterprises, employees and training centers of tourism, travelers including business travelers and normal tourists, local people of the destination area and other people of tourism industry (Imran, Alam & Beaumont, 2014).
The main element in tourism planning is to encourage the participation of local people which is required for sustenance of the tourism industry. It is seen that the local communities show interest in tourism planning when the policies created meet their needs and concerns. They also want to engage themselves to ensure that their demands are satisfied. The stakeholders are referred to as the suppliers and industries, intermediaries of marketing and facilitators, public and local members, and international customers. Suppliers supply the products and services in order to meet the tourists’ needs. They play an important role to satisfy the demands of the customers. The marketing intermediaries consist of tourism firms, meeting planners and facilitators who help in the smooth ongoing of the tourism industry (Roy, Hall & Ballantine, 2017). The stakeholders of a tourism industry consist of public and private sector, people of the local community and tourists. Public sector determines the scheme and strategy for setting up of a standard facility and services. Private sector looks after the improvement in space, products and activities along with the profit of the company. The people of the local community provide the suitable hospitality to the tourists in order to build an image of the destination. Their culture and behavior also matters in satisfying the travelers. Taking help from the stakeholders indicates the utilization of support from the community and promotion of sustainable development vision in the area (Roy, Hall & Ballantine, 2017).
Examining the levels and impact of tourism in the community and implementation of sustainable development plan for tourism is important part of community organization. It is important to look after the rules, regulations, guidelines and practices for sustainable development of Tourist Company. Accepting tourism as one of the parameters of sustainable development plan is done by the host community. The responsibility of the tourists is to accept and observe the terms and conditions of the local community sustainable development plan for tourism (Chon & Weber, 2014).
Being the Chief Planner of Clipper Bay, the following points will be included in my plan of developing the economy of the town. CBA is the tool to analyze the benefits and cost of a decision regarding investment.
Through word of mouth or through the tourism board, tourists will visit clipper bay which will result in development of the place. The local community will also get encouraged to build more attractions and activities for pulling the tourists. Although tourism industry affects the economy of a place to a great deal, but it benefits the destination area as well as the native countries of the tourists (Wee, 2013). Tourism industry motivates a developing country to develop itself and improve financially which has both positive and negative impacts. It is sometimes seen that the already developed countries make better profits in tourism than the developing ones. When it is time for development of the growing nations, their loss is posing a threat to their development. One reason for this can be the transfer of tourism revenues from the host country and not using the local products. A large amount of income gained can leave through wages paid outside the area and purchasing of imports which is known as leakage. When travelers take a cruise journey where most of the facilities are offered in the ship itself, there is not much left for the local community people to provide the tourists. Developing tourism can be heavy on the local government and the taxpayers. Increase in building costs and land values also make it difficult for the local people to meet their daily basic necessity (Webster & Ivanov, 2014).
There is only a bleak chance for growth or promotion. The jobs do not give any extra benefits like pension, sick pay or health care. The money earned can be used more effectively for the benefit of the country rather than being directed to tourist areas. The local people who do not live in tourist areas suffer a lot. If a tourism industry in a developing town like clipper bay is owned by a foreign company, then the local business profit is very low, which is referred to as economic leakage. This is because the major profit is earned by the owner of the company. Sometimes the balance is not maintained in case of employment and profession. If the tourism industry becomes really successful, then other industries get hampered. This will make the people depend only on the tourism industry which will lead to a disaster in the off season (Yang & Fik, 2014).
The profit from the tourism industry also helps in generating income to be used in other sectors. This growth can invite foreign visitors and thus earn a certain amount of foreign exchange. Tax levied on tourism employment and tourism business generates direct contribution (Chon & Weber, 2014). Indirect contribution is generated from tax and duties on goods and services that are provided to the tourists. A significant growth in the tourism industry has provided employment opportunities. Tourism can provide jobs in hotels, restaurants, selling souvenirs, supply of goods and services. The local government can be persuaded to make better infrastructure due to growth in the tourism industry. An improved water and sewage system, telephone connections, public transport will attract more tourists in clipper bay and will be beneficial for the local people too. This will help both the host community as well as the visitors. A better destination will provide better facility to the tourists which will make the life better for the local community people. Environment is a major component for the tourism industry so the revenues are used for measuring the economic worth of the protected areas. Profit is also gained indirectly through street vendors, hawkers, route guides, rickshaw pullers and auto drivers (Kim, Uysal & Sirgy, 2013).
Tourism is such an important factor of economy that its development affects the growth and progress of national economy. Infrastructure can be considered as a physical element of tourism that is designed and established as per the demand of the travelers. Infrastructure includes facilities, equipment, resources and systems that are necessary for smooth functioning of a tourist destination such as clipper bay (McKercher & Koh, 2017). Some infrastructures that can be mentioned are roads, airports, railways, and other transport which makes the destination accessible for the tourists. Other factors included in infrastructure are healthcare systems, hotels, restaurants, sports facilities and public services. Tourism infrastructure is important because it increases the growth and development of tourism services, or sometimes increases the supply of tourism services and an advanced transport system makes the place easily accessible. The transport infrastructure should be well developed so that the tourists can reach safely and comfortably to the destination. Tourists enhance the efficiency of human resources at a place as they search for certain requirements which make their stay at the destination convenient (Kim, Uysal & Sirgy, 2013). The basic infrastructure which is being looked out for by the tourists is supply of water, communication, electricity and disposal of waste materials. The provision for public security, transportation, medicines, fiscal systems and literacy and other such services is known as infrastructure. Tourism infrastructure is unique in case of a long running of tourism and its progress in providing the required services to the tourists (Das & Chatterjee, 2017).
Figure: Management Competency
Source: (Ruhanen, 2013)
Tourism infrastructure is a major part of tourism supply chain. To highlight the building of this base, many nations are involved to attain a better tourism result so that it can bear a remarkable impact on the economic development. A healthy relationship should be maintained between infrastructure, tourism and the local economy. It is seen that public, private and state, all are equally accountable for the standard of infrastructure. To plan sustainable development of this infrastructure requires an overall progress and prosperity of the tourism facilities (Saufi, O'Brien & Wilkins, 2014).
Clipper bay is located at the foothills which is easily accessible by the travelers (Ma & Hassink, 2013). A beautiful beach within the city is an added advantage for the tourists. There are also a cluster of limestone caves along the beach which is a major attraction. So clipper bay is all set with beautiful scenery which makes it the perfect tourist destination. The town has a small population that means more area is available for building hotels and restaurants for tourists. More the number of tourists in a place better the growth in tourism industry. Development of tourism industry means a potential advantage on the economic growth of the town clipper bay. Moreover the families in clipper bay are living there for multiple generations which mean they are well acquainted with their culture. Mostly the people there are involved in the profession of fishing. They are engaged in this profession generation after generation which results in the availability of tasty seafood. Tourists can get attracted to clipper bay for the seafood also (Rahardjo, 2015). The employment opportunity during tourist season earns extra incentive for the local people.
Socio- cultural changes refer to the change in a person’s daily life and experience, to their values, intellectual and creative products. Tourism can turn local cultures into product when the local rites and rituals turn into an amusement commodity for satisfying the tourists. Human values of a destination start changing when the place is sold for tourism. The sacred sites and rituals might be mocked of by the tourists and they might not value or respect the native ethnicity of the place. Selling of souvenirs, arts, crafts and other such products have brought a drastic change in clipper bay. The change did not come in a good way because the original products lose their identity and authenticity by changing the design to satisfy the customers’ choice. To keep up with the expectation of the tourists’ well- known fast food joints, restaurants and hotel chains are to be built in unfamiliar environment (Stylidis et al., 2014).
The female population is involved in weaving. Every summer, this town marks the beginning of fishing season by hosting a festival which involves a week- long feast. The entry of tourists in a community gives employment to the local community. This is a privilege for a small town like clipper bay. Their efficiency in fishing, making seafood and weaving can earn them extra income. They can use this efficiency by selling products to the tourists in exchange of money. The money that is earned from tourism is spent on the local economy. Through multiplier effect, more the tourist exchange earned, more is the benefit for the local economy (Dredge & Jamal, 2015). The commercialization of a tourist destination is undermined by the culture of that place. Since clipper bay has a rich cultural heritage, it will get reduced to wearing costumes and doing acts for the visitors to earn money from them. Even though tourism provides opportunity for employment but those are not of good standard. The jobs mainly include working at the bar, hotels or restaurants.
On the other hand, tourism brings people of different region closer to each other. This increases communal harmony and mutual understanding. This in turn reduces tension and contributes to world peace. Tourism adds to the vitality of the communities (Sigala, 2014). For example, in clipper bay the festival of welcoming the fishing season gets refreshed and re- energized in the presence of the foreign tourists. Tourism upgrades infrastructure, health and transport, new sport and recreational facilities. It also boosts the exchange of history and culture contributing to conservation and sustainable management of natural resources.
Tourism has a great impact on the natural as well as man- made environment. Both tourism and environment share a complex relationship among themselves because tourism has many such activities that can adverse impact on the environment. Construction of new infrastructure like roads, buildings and hotels can destruct the natural habitats. Pollution is caused due to smoking and use of plastic bag, which causes environmental hazards. Cutting of trees or deforestation to get more space for tourists should be avoided as it creates ecological imbalance. The changes in the environment, pollution and dirt disrupt the scenic beauty of the landscape of clipper bay. Tourism should take proper care of the environment, because if the natural and human- made beauties are lost, clipper bay will lose its visitors (Holden, 2016).
Environmental protection and conservation is what it gets as a benefit from tourism. Through tourism, awareness is raised about environmental values. The money earned from tourism contributes to the protection of natural areas and increase their importance economically. The initiative to move towards eco- tourism holds a chance to improve the quality of environment. Efficient use of natural resources and implementing the practice of recycling and reusing proves to be very fruitful for the environment (Chon & Weber, 2014).
The key lessons learned from this essay highlight the social, economical and environmental impact of tourism on the town Clipper bay. The city has a major profession of fishing which delivers delicious seafood to the tourists. The scenic beauty of the town and a major accessibility tends to be advantageous for the tourists. But the disadvantage includes offering low- paying jobs to the local people where there is no growth and promotion. The native culture of the town is getting ruined because of the designing of the souvenirs according to the tourists’ choice.
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