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Discuss about the sharp decline in the number of Tourists visiting Pahang.


Introduction and Background

Tourism contributes a significant part to the revenue generation of a nation. The Tourism refers to the wealth and cultural heritage present in a nation. The socioeconomic transformations have a pivotal part in affecting the industry of tourism. In the current research proposal, a detailed account of the issues present behind the decline of the number of tourists in the PAHANG state of Malaysia has been presented. The Tourism sector in Malaysia has been sharply increasing ever since 2014. However, in the year 2015, there has been a sharp decline in the number of tourists from 27.44 million to 25.72 million.  Additionally, the positioning of Malaysia in the tourism sector shifted from 26th to 25th in 2015 (Tourism Malaysia, 2015). Moreover, tourism can bring enormous benefits to a nation in terms of strengthening the economy. However, the recent decline suggests that immediate measures need to be taken by the government for the improvement of the revenue generation from Tourism.

Research objectives and questions  

The research will aim at investigating the sole reason behind the sharp decline in the number of Tourists visiting Pahang.


Objectives of the research:

The research project will therefore look into investigating the following objectives:

  • To critically access the contribution of tourism in promoting the economy of the state
  • To evaluate the factors affecting the number of tourists visiting Pahang
  • To recommend ways in which the loss  in the tourism sector could be compensated

Research questions:

The study will focus on the following research questions such as:

  • How does tourism contribute in promoting the economy of a state?
  • What are the factors affecting the number of tourists visiting the Pahang region of Malaysia?
  • What are the possible ways in which the losses suffered by the tourist industry can be compensated?

Review of the literature

The current proposal focuses on the tourism aspects in the state of Pahang in Malaysia. In this respect, Pahang is the third largest state in Malaysia by land.  It is also the largest in state in peninsular Malaysia.  The naming of the state has been done after the Pahang river basin. It originates at the confluence of the Jelai and Tembelling rivers on the Titiwangsa Mountains, draining into the South China Sea. Kuantan is the state capital of the city. The economy of the state is generated from diverse areas such as timber, oil palm, fishing and the tourism industry. The region is rich in its natural beauty and attracts many tourists annually. However, in between December 2014 and January 2015, the region state experienced severe flood between he the Telerloh and Pekan river basin. This resulted in huge property losses and evacuation of almost 29, 000 people from the adjoining areas.

In the year 2016, the tourism industry of the state has experienced a sharp decrease in the number of tourists visiting the place. This could be attributed to the massive devastation of the region caused by the flood. Pahang harboured a number of beaches, rainforests, and several mountains. It also consists of a number of resorts, plantations and terrace farms. However, the flood caused huge disruptions to the tourism assets of the state.

The aspects of tourism are judged upon based upon a number of factors such as perceived quality, perceived value and expectations. This perceived quality is affected by the satisfaction rate of the visitors.  As commented by Giap et al. (2016), the satisfaction quotient is based upon a number of factors such as the attraction of the region, the facilities offered by the region, the accessibility of the region.  As argued by Loureiro (2014), the accessibility of the region can be a critical governing factor.  One of the consistent problems encountered by the tourists visiting the Malaysian continent has been price competitiveness. The high costs of the goods in the Malaysian market often limit the buying attributes of the tourists (Spilanis et al. 2014). There are a number of factors based upon which the selection of a tourist destination done.  It includes the safety and security concerns, international openness, price competitiveness, natural and cultural resources of the region and tourist service infrastructure (Hall & Page, 2014).


In this context, the tourism can have a profound and diverse impact of the economy, society, culture and the ecology. The overlapping of the interests of the all three sectors is crucial in enhancing the tourism growth prospects. The economic group might comprise of the business class looking for job opportunities in the Tourism sector. As argued by Spilanis et al. (2014), some of the local residents might feel displaced by a huge number of visitors. The third group might include the local environmental enthusiasts. As supported by Giap et al.  (2016), community participation from all the three classes is needed to meet the required objectives of tourism.

However, as argued by Rosselló-Nadal (2014) security concerns have been a prime issue in the decreases in the number of tourists in Malaysia.  Increased incidences of theft, kidnapping, terrorism along with the recent disappearance of the flight number MH370 had reduced the number of Chinese visitors by almost 27%.  As asserted by Park et al. (2015), the media plays an important role in promoting tourism prospects of a region. Additionally, sufficient funds from the government can also play an effective role in promoting the tourism infrastructure.

Theoretical framework


Figure 1: Theoretical framework

(Source: Researcher)


There are considerable factors influencing development and growth in the tourism industry. In the current decade, the Pahang region has seen a sharp decline in the rate of a tourist visit. It could be attributed to a number of reasons such as the current natural and ecological resources. These have been seen to generate tourist attraction for a place. Similarly, the factors governing the tourist's attraction towards a place can be divided into push and pull factors. The push and pull factors act as catalyst guiding the internal motivation of the tourists in visiting a place. Some of these factors are the suitable demographics as well as the cultural interests of a person. It is further supported by the security concerns and job opportunities.  As argued by Rossello-Nadal (2014), provision of a suitable amount of supportive infrastructure to the tourists can also affect their intention to visit a place.


Research methodology 

The research methodology is the systematic approach adopted by the researcher for the collection and the analysis of the data. For the current research proposal, the researcher will use simple, random non-probability method for the collection of the data. Thus, a primary quantitative research design has been adopted where a sample size of 100 respondents have been selected for the collection of the data. For the purpose of comparative analysis, the researcher will use secondary literature sources such as books and journals. The researcher will use these along with newspapers and local tourism databases for lead generation.

Data analysis:

The researcher will use Cronbach's alpha for testing the reliability of the collected data. T-test will be used to compare the levels of a tourist attraction as per the destination characteristics. Additionally, multivariate analysis will be used to test the effect of demographics, cultural characteristics and travelling intentions of the tourists. The well tabulated and the well-organised data will be presented in charts and graphs for further analysis. 

Schedule of the project

Research activity

Period of time

Research proposal development and Approval

One month

 Review of the literature

Three months

Research methods determination

One month

Designing of questionnaire

Fifteen days

Collection of primary data

Two months

Collection of secondary data

One month

Data entry and testing the reliability

Seven days

Data analysis

Eighteen days

Findings, suggestions and conclusion

One month

Table 1: Schedule of the project

(Source: researcher)



July 2017

Aug. 2017

Sept. 2017

Oct. 2017

Nov. 2017

Dec. 2017

Jan. 2018

Feb. 2018

March 2018

Research activity

31 days

31 days

30 days

15 days

15 days

30 days

31 days

31 days

10 days

7 days

11 days

31 days

Research proposal development and Approval













Review of the literature













Research methods determination













Designing of questionnaire













Collection of primary data













Collection of secondary data













Data entry and testing the reliability













Data analysis













Findings, suggestions and conclusion













Table 2: Gantt chart (timeline)

(Source: researcher)

Estimated research cost


Cost in Malaysian Ringgits

Salary of the officials


Research officer

=RM 85, 000

Research staff

=RM 70, 000


=RM 72, 000

Plan production

=RM 1,50,000

Installation of software (SPSS)

=RM 2,75,000

Security charges

=RM 2,50,000

Additional infrastructural costs

=RM 2,32,000



Table 3: Estimated costs



Giap, T. K., Gopalan, S., & Ye, Y. (2016). Drivers of growth in the travel and tourism industry in Malaysia: A Geweke causality analysis. Journal of Economic Literature, DOI: 10.3390/economies4010003.

Hall, C. M., & Page, S. J. (2014). The geography of tourism and recreation: Environment, place and space.Abingdon: Routledge.

Hou, Y., Zhou, S., Burkhard, B., & Müller, F. (2014). Socioeconomic influences on biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being: A quantitative application of the DPSIR model in Jiangsu, China. The science of the Total Environment, 490, 1012-1028.

Khan, A. H., Haque, A., Rahman, M. S. (2013). What Makes Tourists Satisfied? An Empirical Study on Malaysian Islamic Tourist Destination. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 14(12), 1631-1637.

Loureiro, S. M. C. (2014). The role of the rural tourism experience economy in place attachment and behavioural intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 40, 1-9.

Middleton, V. T. C. and Clarke, J. (2001), Marketing in Travel and Tourism (3rd Edition), Butterwith-Heinemann.

Park, D. B., Nunkoo, R., & Yoon, Y. S. (2015). Rural residents’ attitudes to tourism and the moderating effects of social capital. Tourism Geographies, 17(1), 112-133.

Rosselló-Nadal, J. (2014). How to evaluate the effects of climate change on tourism. Tourism Management, 42, 334-340.

Spilanis, I., & Vayanni, H. (2014). Sustainable tourism: utopia or necessity? The role of new forms of tourism in the Aegean Islands.

Stylidis, D., Biran, A., Sit, J., & Szivas, E. M. (2014). Residents' support for tourism development: The role of residents' place image and perceived tourism impacts. Tourism Management, 45, 260-274.

Tourism Malaysia. (2016). Malaysia registers 25.7 million tourists in 2015. Retrieved from:

Xiang, L. T. (2015). 2016 Malaysia outlook: challenging.Retrieved from:


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