Use of motivational techniques has been found to directly influence employee relationship and workplace productivity. Different motivational theories have also defined the link between motivation, and job satisfaction, leadership style, productivity and performance. There are motivational factors that influences productivity too such as the intrinsic/extrinsic motivation factors, cognition and environment (Zameer et al. 2014). The main purpose of this essay is to critically analyze a research by Guclu, H. and Guney (2017) on investigating the effect of motivation techniques used by managers to increase the productivity of their workers and commenting on the research finding by comparing it with different theoretical perspective and different factors associated with motivation. The key strength and weakness of the article is provide with valid explanation about confounding factors and biasness in research design. The essay also provides argument regarding areas of disagreement and recommends other approach to enhance the validity and transferability of the research work.
In any research work, the main purpose of author is always to explain the significance of the research work and research hypothesis with explanation about current issues or gap in the topic area. This validates the research work and gives idea to the reader about the significance of the research question. Guclu, H. and Guney (2017) has set the scene for research by explanation about efficiency notions in workplace, factors and methodologies affecting efficiency and difference of motivation techniques and theories in increasing efficiency at workplace. Such explanation is commendable work by the researcher as they have started from wider perspective and gradually narrowed the discussion to give idea about the topic of interest in the research work. However, one limitation in this area is that the author has not presented any gap in past research work. While reviewing the article, it has been found that main research question was related to evaluating the manager’s perceptions towards employees in manufacturing companies. However, discrepancy has been seen in stating the research question/research hypothesis. This is because the author has mentioned evaluating manager’s towards employee in the abstract section, however in the research method section the author has mentioned about determining employee’s opinion regarding affecting impact of motivation tools used by the manager. For better simplicity, it is assumed that the main research questions was to evaluate employee’s perception regarding the effect of motivation tools used by managers.
Going by the above thesis statement of the article, it can be said that author has chosen a good area of research. This is because employees can give the best idea about effect of motivational tools on improving workplace productivity. Leaders implement various strategies to motivate their employees, however the employee’s are the best source to tell the effectiveness of these strategies. Hence, I agree with the importance of the research question as it can give idea about the dimensions of leadership styles that can promote daily employee engagement in work. A study by Breevaart et al. (2014) has discussed about the role of leadership style on employee engagement. For instance, transformational leaders motivate their followers beyond expectation and workplace place with such leader may dramatically affect production. Just like this literature, the research question used by Guclu, and Guney (2017) might help to find out effect on leader’s behavior on day-to-day procedures and followers outcome.
Based on the thesis statement, data was collected from employees and managers working in fabric dying industries by means of survey based questionnaire. The first set of questionnaire gave idea about the age, gender, educational status and experience of the participants, whereas the second set gave idea about the opinion of employees about the motivation tools. The main criteria for choosing firm was that it must be medium scale firm with more than 50 employees. Out of 229 participants, 46 were managers and rest were workers (Guclu, and Guney 2017). The strength of the study is the manner in which the researcher has evaluated the baseline data of participants such as gender, educational status and education on perceptions about effect of motivation tools. On analyzing the results, it has been found that baseline data significantly affected the opinion of participants. For instance, the study mainly evaluated the perception of employees about three types of motivation tools such as economic tools, psychosocial tools and the organizational and managerial tools. The study finding gave the indication that female mostly preferred the economic tools and psychosocial tools. However, no differentiation were found in terms of age group and educational status. In contrast, for the dimension of monthly income, it was found that participant’s perception differed for psychosocial and managerial tools. Psychosocial tool mostly has an impact on low income groups compared to the other income segment. This is relevant to the Maslow needs hierarchy theory where people’s behavior is motivated by their needs (Lester 2013). Hence, the low income group may be motivated by psychosocial intervention due to fulfill their innate hierarchical needs.
From the review of the result, it can be said that the use of baseline parameters is the strength of the article as it has given answer to the research question. The role of leaders and organization in motivating employees is also understood from the outcome for assignment status as the participant’s assignment status were mostly affected by organizational and managerial tools. However, the same point also indicates the weakness of the organization (Guclu, and Guney 2017). For example, as the purpose of this research was to investigate about the effect of motivational tools used by the manager in affected employee performance, hence the study result should have given more idea about the intrinsic/extrinsic motivation on affecting employee’s motivation to perform. The research by Yidong and Xinxin (2013) focused on this point by investigating about intrinsic motivation factors that helps leaders to influence employee’s work behavior. The study with workers from China gave the idea that innovative work behavior was related to employee’s perception of leadership and relation between managers and leaders were mediated by intrinsic motivation factors. Therefore, the study confirmed that ethical leadership facilitates attitude and behavior change in workplace. It is also recommended that managers should develop ethical leadership style as such leader implement morality in workplace and respect follower’s dignity and empower them to change their work performance (Srivastava and Barmola 2012).
Another strength of the article is the manner in which the study was conducted and the study was analysed. Consideration of appropriate sampling technique and inclusion criteria is also critical to increase the quality of the research study. For instance, the study findings were also enhanced by considering about frequency variance in the study outcome. The gap in variance gave idea about the strength of the study. However, no specialized sampling technique was used, the only criteria was to choose medium size firm. While preparing survey questionnaire too, the focus was on collecting demographic data and research hypothesis related data. In the research by Demerouti et al., (2014) investigating about selective optimization process in improving job performance, the researcher focused on having two separate questionnaires for employee and managers. The questionnaire were also code numbered to provide anonymity to the research data. I feel that (Guclu, and Guney 2017) should have also used such approach to further increase the quality of the research work.
The main conclusion from the reviewing the research finding is that I agree with author regarding using useful strategies in some point however I could also find certain weak points. For instance, the above discussion pointed to the limitations in the framing of research questionnaire, sampling technique and lack of consideration about factors affecting motivation. Secondly, agreement was found also regarding the role of education status in participations perception about motivation tools. The advantage of having highly qualified workers is that they have the knowledge and judgment level to significantly understand the motivation process. They are more conscious about type of motivation tools used in organization too. The research by Dysvik and Kuvaas, (2013) also proved that achievement goals and method of receiving performance feedback differs in different individual due to educational status of employees. Hence, focusing on qualification of employee is crucial in the motivation process and planning about workplace productivity.
The essay critically analyzed the research conducted by Guclu and Guney (2017) inquiring about the perceptions of workers related to the use of motivation tools by the work manager. The key strength and weakness of the article was analysed with respect to the research question and the comparison with relevant research literatures. The main strength was the consideration of baseline data of the participants and the weakness was not evaluating personality traits and its impact on motivation process. The key recommendation to improve the research work is that the author should have focused on using different set of questionnaire for managers and employers to evaluate different areas regarding motivational tools. Secondly, the questionnaire for managers could also include personality traits as this can further enhance the research data. The research by Lounsbury et al. (2016) focused on personality trait of managers by applying the Big Five Personality traits. Future research work can focus on this area.
Breevaart, K., Bakker, A., Hetland, J., Demerouti, E., Olsen, O.K. and Espevik, R., 2014. Daily transactional and transformational leadership and daily employee engagement. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 87(1), pp.138-157.
Demerouti, E., Bakker, A.B. and Leiter, M., 2014. Burnout and job performance: The moderating role of selection, optimization, and compensation strategies. Journal of occupational health psychology, 19(1), p.96.
Dysvik, A. and Kuvaas, B., 2013. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of work effort: The moderating role of achievement goals. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52(3), pp.412-430.
Guclu, H. and Guney, S., 2017. The Effect of the Motivation Techniques Used by Managers to Increase the Productivity of their Workers and an Application.
Lester, D., 2013. Measuring Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Psychological Reports, 113(1), pp.15-17.
Srivastava, S.K. and Barmola, K.C., 2012. Role of motivation in higher productivity. Management Insight, 7(1).
Yidong, T. and Xinxin, L., 2013. How ethical leadership influence employees’ innovative work behavior: A perspective of intrinsic motivation. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(2), pp.441-455.
Zameer, H., Ali, S., Nisar, W. and Amir, M., 2014. The impact of the motivation on the employee’s performance in beverage industry of Pakistan. International journal of academic research in accounting, finance and management sciences, 4(1), pp.293-298.
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