Since the start of the 18th century, the activities of globalization has been endowing the city of Bath with the buildings in its classical form within the store of cream lime that have been coming for defining the its distinct feature as a prestigious historical town and being successfully nominated in the World Site of Heritage in the year 1987 (Carey 2010). This World Site of Heritage is a site of 29 square kilometer spreading across majority of the city of Bath. This tourist spot has been becoming highly competitive and there had been more chances that it will be driving in the local context.
The City of Bath in the South Western part of England had been found in the first century AD by the population of Rome who utilized the spot for thermal spa as they considered it as natural hot springs. It had turned into a relevant center for the industry of wool in the period of middle ages, but by the period of the 18th century, it had been established as an elegant city of spa by the reigns of Georgy I, II, and III, being famed in art and literature (Davenport, P. 2002). As reflected by the Georgian City, the aim of many personalities was focused on making Bath as one of the most beautiful cities in the entire continent of Europe, with a harmonious combination of landscape and architecture for enjoying the cure takers of the spa town.
Apart from being a city of spa, in the industry of travel and tourism, the city is most preferred for the reflection it provides to the tourists. The city of Bath has been reflecting two very important and great eras in the history of humans: the Georgian and the Romans. It contributes to reflect the appreciation and understanding of the religious and social society developed by the population of Rome (Carey 2010). When the city has been redeveloped in the 18th century, it had been uniquely combines with social history, spatial arrangement and outstanding architecture of urban area in the industry travel and tourism.
The local plan for the north eastern part of Somerset and the City of Bath consists of core policy in accordance with the development for tourist activities which would result in causing harm to the qualities for the justification of the inscription of the properties under World Heritage. The core policy focuses on the protection of historical heritage. The landscapes surrounding the area are being protected that has resulted in strengthening the property by adopting the supplementary document of planning. Progress is being made in negotiations with respect to the transfer in managing the main areas of the land from the city of Bath and the council under the north eastern part of the Somerset to the National Trust (Cathy 1995). However, for initiating the activities of tourism, the city has been developed protecting its historical heritage with improved sources of transportation available for the tourists.
The biggest economic advantage and opportunity for the historical heritage in the city of Bath is by the activities of tourism. However, there is a lack of clarity in the figures as to how this is affected by the stated of World Heritage Site held by the city of Bath. It has been estimated that the complete value of tourism is approximately 195 million euros for the city of Bath, with the opportunities of 7834 number of actual jobs in relation with tourism (Davenport, P. 2002). This data had been estimated in the year 2007 and currently the value of tourism for the north eastern region of Somerset and Bath has increased by 349 million Euros.
The heritage of culture has been identified as the strongest point of attraction for tourists who visit Bath. The city has been rated and ranked in accordance with its attractiveness, ranking its historical building and architecture on top, followed by ambience, atmosphere, history, attractions and compactness (Graham 2000). Majority of the tourists visiting the area are either older or middle aged travelling who travel in the groups of adult only. Approximately 19 per cent of the visitors had been arriving by organized tours and trips in the year 2004.
Example: Furthermore, access to transportation is multiple dimensional in nature which means that land and air specifically are connected through various routes. The structure here is complicated in nature. Accommodation for tourists is preferential and luxurious whereas cheap allowing more and more tourists to visit the city.
The proposal made for the future held by the city of Bath is exploring potentially over the spatial framework for the character in future and planning for redeveloping the sites with the appropriate and sustainable utilization of the land area. This particular spatial framework has proposed strong west- east and north- south axes for the creation of a more balances and dynamic flow of activity and movement in the entire center of city (Keane 2007). All across this particular structure, a number of overlapping and loosely themed character regions and urban quarter have been providing suggested. These are responded to and inspired by the principles for the development of vision and the current form in the center of city.
The hospitality and tourism sector of UK has come in partnership with the government for focusing on the improvement of skills, quality and availability of jobs. The main focus is to boost the organizations performing in this industry. For this purpose and more concentrated focus, a council of tourism has been established by the government that develops and shared best activities and practices for the continuity in thriving the sector of tourism. The council of tourism is a board of employers led by the industry and the major players of the sector under the authorities of the government. The responsibility of the government is to improvise the position for international and national tourist organization by national level government sponsored bodies, British Tourist Authorities and English Tourism Council. International agencies for tourists are inclusive of UNWTO, International civil aviation organization and International air transport association United Nation.
The government has been giving it huge importance as the industry of hospitality and tourism is helping in selling Britain that helps in boosting the growth of economy and driving investment with high scope of profitability. This council will help to grow the sector of tourism by being sources of funds and other work of promotion that will help in inspiring a number of people for visiting and exploring more areas of the United Kingdom (Coathup 1999). By the establishment of this council, the government of UK has been providing an opportunity to the industry of hospitality and tourism for equally voicing with the other related sectors that have potential to drive the economy further ahead. This council will also help in increasing the scope of more job opportunities and improved development of skills in the industry.
The outlook for travelling to United Kingdom is highly dependent over a number of different factors, majority of which are beyond the scope of being controlled by different legislations. Hence, there are a number of economic policies, in the international and local context for controlling these activities and influencing the industry of tourism in negative as well as positive ways. Certain destinations like Britain have been successful in gaining share of demand all across the globe by both, marketing of destination as well as favorable environment of policy (Coathup 1999). These policies have been marketing and promoting the activities that are highly identified for increasing the awareness of brand, and enhancement of perceptions for the destinations being travelled, and finally leading towards increasing the level of demand all across the globe.
Majority of the policies established by the Local bodies of UK and European Union have been focused on strengthening the cohesion of territories, society and economy by the reduction of disparities among the degrees at which UK is being developed. With respect to the industry of tourism in UK, the policy of the region is able to capitalize benefits and advantages for particular regions, for minimizing the differences amongst the economies of the region and the nation (Wanhill 2003). The main aspects of these policies are focused on enhancing the importance of tourism industry in UK. These policies have also been focused on a number of different activities and strategies are being developed and established in accordance with these activities.
The environment of politics has a major impact on the efficiency and working of the tourism sector, in all nations across the globe, irrespective of their size and area under operations. Factors of political environment that have a major impact on the tourism sector include regulations, laws and policies by the government that are focused on facilitating or hindering the direct strategies of marketing. These factors of politics have been creating opportunities and advantages for the industry of tourism (Coathup 1999). In a converse manner, these have been placing duty and obligation on the industry of tourism. These changes in the political environment include crucial issues like adaptation of restructuring, planning of strategies, management strategies and activities, globalization, creating social capital and development of sustainability as well.
These changes also consist of lobbying groups, government agencies and lawful regulation that result in limiting or pressurizing the organizations or individuals in the sector of tourism. These crucial issues have a major impact on the industry of tourism, particularly in UK as the activities of tourism are given huge importance for the development of economy that attracts the focus of every environment on the development of this sector (Dibb & Ferrell 2001).
The laws and regulations of the national government have been identified as the products or outcomes of the systems of politics. These laws and regulations are originated under the political environment and are a backdrop of socio- culture which have been preceding these particular systems. After being approved from the authorities of politics, these laws and regulations are placed within the settings of the tourism and hospitality industry. The political environment of UK is also responsible for differentiating ethnicity that are centralized with natural odds in the opportunities of being a capitalist.
The primary factors that affect the demand of tourism are the economic factors which have a wide range involved. Growth in the sectors of European Union, political environment, taxation and other such factors have been affecting the tourism demand in UK that are positive as well as negative (Liu 2000). There has also been a significant change in the attitudes of customers that again have a major impact on the entire industry resulting in the standardization of products, growth in the channels of information and strategies for pricing.
There have been an involvement of a number of demographic condition that have resulted in changing their appearance and are now featured as the main focus for online deliberations and online debates. The society includes population of older people with an increase in the expectancy of life and the number of children being born is declining as majority of the population have been showing preferences towards living separately, divorcing and if single, adopting a child from foster homes. There has been a dissolution in the traditional patterns of the family (Witt 2001). There has been an increase in the number of more trips through flight and there has been an increase in the utilization of more operators of tour. Hence, there is clarity in the fact that the changes in the features of demography has been having a major impact over the tourism demand of UK.
The orientation of price has been becoming a dominating character as well. The induction of this factor has been done by the strategies presented and implemented within the industry of travel and tourism (Liu 2000). The sale of good quality tours for considerably lower amount of prices with an expectation of higher shares in the market have chances to affect the high rate of turnover with the probability of lower level of profit. But the rank of product quality and convenience with the customers and so the concept of induced orientation of price has continuously been spiral in nature. There is a contingent nature with the alternatives available within the market of tourism. The absence of customers in this industry of tourism will be going nowhere in the market. The tourist destinations in UK have been becoming alerted, switched on, for realizing they have been becoming honestly involved with highly intensified competition.
There are two different types of situations that needed action on priority basis. Either there should have been in change in supply for exceeding the level of demand, or the opposite for the level of demand that exceeds supply. In context with the changes in supply for exceeding the level of demand, adoption of strategies had been tailored for meeting the situations or circumstances that arise on seasonal, daily, long term, or weekly basis. With the level of demand being lower, either at specific periods of time or below the level of capacity, there have been a number of strategies being involved (Turner 2006). Diversification and modification of product with adjustments being made in the channels of distribution, if there is a need for strengthening these. A number of different alternatives have been identified and new sources of demand have been identified and discounting of price has been done. The strategy of promotion have been reappraised that are related to the changes in supply.
Another condition in the change in supply has been considering the need for the reduction of costs as there is no possibility for increasing the desired factors of demand. In context with the change in supply, there has been a reduction in the variable and fixed costs within the hospitality industry. As a significant example, there will not only be a reduction in the availability of rooms but the entire wings or even the entire hotel. In addition to this, this has prevalence within the Caribbean Airlines (Vu 2006). There can be a reduction in the availability of flights as there will be availability only for quota seats or other companies willing to rent these. There has been an increase in the number of more trips through flight and there has been an increase in the utilization of more operators of tour.
Hence, there is clarity in the fact that the changes in the features of demography has been having a major impact over the tourism demand of UK. Huge importance is being given to the activities of redistribution as there is no self- sustenance towards the demand for a specific product (Witt 2001). The factors for hotels and accommodations are being converted that might involve fusion of two number of rooms as one or providing different rooms for smokers as well as non- smokers.
The growth of economy in the sector of travel and tourism is forecasted towards outstripping the broader economy that has made the United Kingdom highly reliable over the entire sector. This particular sector had initiated growth by 1.3 per cent in the year 2012 that is more than twice of the growth rate in the broader economy. This growth rate contributes in depicting that as expected by the industry, this sector will be directly contributing towards 35.6 billion euros and generating approximately 90000 job opportunities for the economy of UK (Choy 2008).
Even though this sector has been highly beneficial for the economy of UK, there are a number of negative impacts involved as well. Some of the negative impacts have been listed below (Mill 2009):
Each and every item related to the expenditure of tourism in context with theory would be spending on some or the other related project, with a rise in the inevitability of questioning as to what is more relevant. In the similar context, the production of services and goods for the purposes of tourism needs the resources being allocated that could have been utilized for the others (Choy 2008).
Displacement can take place when there is occurrence of development in the industry of tourism at the cost of the other related industry. However, even if a new project is being introduced, the customers of other organization are diverted to the new project which does not contribute to adequately sufficient number of new customers for visiting the local destination for tourists for justifying the amount of investment being made.
There are a number of challenges involved in the initiation of future growth in the industry of travel and tourism with sustainability in the United Kingdom. Diversification and modification of product with adjustments being made in the channels of distribution, if there is a need for strengthening these (Choy 2008). A number of different alternatives have been identified and new sources of demand have been identified and discounting of price has been done. The strategy of promotion have been reappraised that are related to the changes in supply.
The economic growth of UK has been relying highly on the industry of travel and tourism. Whether it is a nation or a town, it will end up being at a vulnerable position in the economy when it comes to being highly dependent over the vigor and health of just a single industry. The application of this is done when the industry being relied upon is the principle industry, ahead of the attraction or destination with an ability for predicting and managing this type of a situation (Mill 2009). With a frequent rise in the amount of prices that include the values of property and land, when there is sustainability in order to build the level of demand with the facilities of tourism.
However, all of the above stated issues can be dealt with in a significant manner by the encouragement of investment within the infrastructure of tourism. This can also be done to pave way for having strong government of democracy to run the related affairs. Solutions can be found to the issues and disputes related to land (Diamond 2008). The government has been playing a significantly active role to influence and direct the development of tourism for the enhancement of competitiveness related to the products of tourism being offered. Boosting of the intra travelling of regions should be done by the creation of focus over strong level of demand from the emergence of middle classes within the society.
With an increase in the potentiality of each and every market across the globe, there is an increased need for effectively planning tourism by cooperation of private sector in the industry that can assist in the attraction of foreign as well as domestic tourists. Hence, there is clarity in the fact that the changes in the features of demography has been having a major impact over the tourism demand of UK (Inskeep 2008). Huge importance is being given to the activities of redistribution as there is no self- sustenance towards the demand for a specific product.
The factors for hotels and accommodations are being converted that might involve fusion of two number of rooms as one or providing different rooms for smokers as well as non- smokers (Mill 2009). The activities of tourism has been considered as a significant tool for the development of economy and provides a number of economic, social and environmental benefits related to those that can be assessed and calculated in an objective manner, and have been serving as a supporting activity for initiating development further ahead.
The city of Bath has been established for a broad remit and it has been predicated as the plan for the management of historical context for the site. This plan is the one serving to inform and link other programs, policies and strategies for the city of Bath that include those for the utilization of land, education and tourism. This plan has been facilitating the insinuation for the values of cultural heritage into each and every aspect in the urban management of site and daily life. The heritage of culture has been identified as the strongest point of attraction for tourists who visit the city of Bath.
The hospitality and tourism sector of UK has come in partnership with the government for focusing on the improvement of skills, quality and availability of jobs. The main focus is to boost the organizations performing in this industry. Certain destinations like Britain have been successful in gaining share of demand all across the globe by both, marketing of destination as well as favorable environment of policy (Burns and Novelli 2007). Factors of political environment that have a major impact on the tourism sector include regulations, laws and policies by the government that are focused on facilitating or hindering the direct strategies of marketing. These factors of politics have been creating opportunities and advantages for the industry of tourism.
The primary factors that affect the demand of tourism are the economic factors which have a wide range involved. Growth in the sectors of European Union, political environment, taxation and other such factors have been affecting the tourism demand in UK that are positive as well as negative. In context with the changes in supply for exceeding the level of demand, adoption of strategies had been tailored for meeting the situations or circumstances that arise on seasonal, daily, long term, or weekly basis. Another condition in the change in supply has been considering the need for the reduction of costs as there is no possibility for increasing the desired factors of demand.
There are a number of challenges involved in the initiation of future growth in the industry of travel and tourism with sustainability in the United Kingdom. Diversification and modification of product with adjustments being made in the channels of distribution, if there is a need for strengthening these. Each and every item related to the expenditure of tourism in context with theory would be spending on some or the other related project, with a rise in the inevitability of questioning as to what is more relevant. In the similar context, the production of services and goods for the purposes of tourism needs the resources being allocated that could have been utilized for the others.
Carey, P. 2010. "Reviving the Cross Bath," Building Conservation. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
Cathy N. 1995. “Subjects and Citizens: Nation, Race, and Gender from Oroonoko to Anita Hill,” Duke University Press.
Davenport, P. 2002. “Medieval Bath Uncovered,” Stroud: Tempus. pp. 97–98.
Graham, A. 2000. "Social Decline and Slum Conditions: Irish migrants in Bath's History". Bath History, VIII.
Keane, P. 2007. An English County and Education: Somerset, 1889–1902. The English Historical Review, 88 (347), pp. 286–311.
Burns, P and Novelli, M. 2007. “Tourism and Politics-Global Framework and local Realities,” Elsevier, Armsterdam, Netherlands.
Coathup, D.C. 1999. "Dominant actors in international tourism", International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 11 (2/3), pp. 69-72
Dibb, S. & Ferrell, O.C. 2001. “Marketing Concepts and Strategies,” Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin, Fourth edition, Page 691.
Wanhill, S. 2003. “Tourism: principles & practice,” Longman, Harlow,” UK.
Liu, X. 2000. “An empirical study of outbound tourism demand in the UK,” Applied Economics, 32, pp. 611-624.
Turner, K. 2006. “Tourism demand forecasting,” Chapter 3, International Handbook on the Economics of Touism, Dwyer, L. and Forsyth, P (Eds.), Edward Elgar, UK.
Vu, J.C. 2006. ‘Effect of Demand Volume on Forecasting Accuracy’, Tourism Economics, 12, pp. 263-273.
Witt, K. 2001. “Factors Influencing Demand for International Tourism:Tourism Demand Analysis Using Structural EquationModelling, Revisited,” Tourism Economics, 7, pp. 21-38.
Choy, D. 2008. “The travel industry,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Diamond, J. 2008. “Tourism and developmental policy: a quantitive appraisal,” Bulletin of Tourism Research, 28(1), pp. 36-50
Inskeep, E. 2008. “Tourism planning: an integrated and sustainable development approach,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Mill, R. 2009. “Tourism: the international business,” Prentice Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA.
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