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Treaty Understanding Of Hauora In Aotearoa

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Question:

Discuss About The Treaty Understanding Of Hauora In Aotearoa?

 

Answer:

Introduction

The Treaty of Waitangi (M?ori: TeTiriti o Waitangi) was first signed in the year 1840 by British Crown under the presence of M?ori chiefs residing in the North Island of New Zealand. The treaty deals with the official declaration of British sovereignty over New Zealand by Lieutenant Governor William Hobson. The treaty recognised the ownership of forest, lands other properties of M?ori and provided then the rights of British subjects. As a result of this treaty, the Queen of England, Queen Victoria gained the sole right to purchase these lands. The major treaty principals are the partners of the treaty have a duty to in act in a reasonable way along with proper faith. It also claims that Crown has the sole freedom to govern them and has the sole duty to protect the interest of M?ori interests and to provide remedy to the past breaches. The Crown can never avoid its obligations under this treaty and needs to consult with M?ori before taking any significant step. According to treaty, M?ori retains rangatiratanga over their resources taonga will enjoy all the privileges and rights of citizenships According to M?ori culture, Tinorangatiratanga includes proper management of resources and other associated taonga. What most interesting is, the M?ori and the English version of the treaty are significantly different and hence there is lack of consensus regarding what exactly was covered or agreed under this signed treaty(Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi – ng?m?t?pono o tetiriti – TeAraEncyclopedia of New Zealand, 2017).

 

Maori health Model (Hauora)

The philosophy of M?ori in the domain of health is based on a wellness. It promotes a holistic health model. The concept of ‘tewhare tapa wh?’ showcasing the four cornerstones of M?ori health is the principal model for understanding M?ori health. The symbol of wharenu illustrates four different dimensions of M?ori well-being. All these four signs are interrelated. Any damage to a single sign indicates unbalanced health. At present, the majority of the M?ori modern health lacks the proper interpretation of the concept of tahawairua (the spiritual dimension). As per the belief of the traditional M?ori approach, proper inclusion of wairua, significant role of wh?nau (family) and maintenance of proper balance of hinengaro(mind) are determining physical factors of illness (M?ori health models – TeWhare Tapa Wh?, 2017).

Source: M?ori health models – TeWhare Tapa Wh?, 2017

Tahatinana (physical health)

According to this concept, proper physical health is an important requirement for the maintenance of optimal development. The physical wellbeing of a person is support by the essence and shelter that he or she receives from the external environment. According to the M?ori believe the physical dimension is only one determining aspect of health and wellbeing and can never be isolated from the spirit, mind and family(M?ori health models – TeWhare Tapa Wh?, 2017).

Tahawairua (spiritual health)

According to this concept, health has a direct connection with unspoken and unseen energies. It believes that the spiritual aroma of an individual is like a life force, which determines a person as an individual. According to the traditional M?ori analysis, the physical manifestation of illness is focused over the spirit of the individual (wairua)(M?ori health models – TeWhare Tapa Wh?, 2017).

Tahawh?nau (family health)

It deals with the caring and sharing with the associated individuals who are the part of the wider social system. Wh?nau bestows the person with strength and provides link for the ancestors. Proper understanding of Wh?nau is important factor contirbutin towards health and illness and family is the fundamental framework of M?ori culture(M?ori health models – TeWhare Tapa Wh?, 2017).

 

Tahahinengaro (mental health)

Mental health is another determining feature of the health and wellbeing of an individual and this mental health is the principal concept behind the Tahahinengaro. Hinengaro claims that though and emotions are the intergral component of soul and body(M?ori health models – TeWhare Tapa Wh?, 2017).

Applications of the principles of the of teTiriti o Waitangi to health promotion strategies in NZ

The Treaty of Waitangi is the key to health promotion in New Zealand. It has been identified as the principal document for Aotearoa. It is partly framed and signed to promote the health concerns which are common among the Maori people. The treaty thus can be recognised as the principal document which provides proper framework control the health and well-beingof the Maori and non-Maori population in New Zealand. The three main principals of treaty that are designed in favour of health provisions are partnerships, participations and active protection(The Treaty of Waitangi and Health Promotion, 2017).

Partnership: According to the treaty, partnership refers to the on-going relationships that exist between the Maori population and the Crown or Queen. One of the prominent examples that can be cited in this ground is the drink-drive programme that has been collaboratively designed by the Maori and a mainstream organisation running under the banner of crown(The Treaty of Waitangi and Health Promotion, 2017).

Participation: According to the treaty, the participation means proper emphasises on the Maori and their active involvement in all aspects of society especially within the Aotearoa.  Within the health promotion, in order to generate active participation there must remain proper planning, monitoring and delivery of the programs that are actually relevant for the Maori people and their culture(The Treaty of Waitangi and Health Promotion, 2017)..

Active Protection: As per the treaty, active protection recognises that the Crown needs to be pro-active in the domain of optimised health promotion. It must also take responsibility for the proper development of preventative strategies in the area of health and wellbeing. In order to attain success in this ground, the Crown may need to deliver or appoint additional resources. Such resources will enable the Maori population to enjoy equitable health status along with their non-Maori neighbours(The Treaty of Waitangi and Health Promotion, 2017).

Thus these three principles in unison have an active role in proper understanding health and wellbeing of the Maori population in New Zealand. They also promote active developments of standard health policies and timely delivery of the healthcare service(The Treaty of Waitangi and Health Promotion, 2017).

Relation to three articles of teTiriti in health promotion of the Maori

 

Article One: Kawanatanga – Governance

The article one outlines the obligations and responsibilities of the Crown to protect and govern the interest of the Mäori people. Here health comes as an important interest for Mäori people. It imparts the sole right to the Crown to design new laws that are directed towards the health and the wellbeing of the Mäori people in accordance with constitutional rules and regulations. Such accordance with rules are regulations further ensures optimised provision of service in all sectors of livings with a special mention to health. The sole power towards the Crown has been imparted by the Mäori in exchange of their lands and hence they are obliged to receive optimised health support from the government which will contribute to and enhance the health and wellbeing(TUHA–NZ a Treaty Understanding of Hauora in Aotearoa-New Zealand, 2017).

Article Two: TinoRangatiratanga – Mäori control and self determination

As per article two, the Queen of England provides consents to chieftainship (rangatiratanga) to all the people of New Zealand includingChiefs, hapu. She also agrees to provide comprehensive protection to their villages and other possessions (taonga: everything that is held precious). Article two of the treaty enables Mäori to exercise their sole tinorangatiratanga, control. It also give them full authority and utmost responsibility over all their existing affairs with a special mention to health. Article Two also guarantees the Mäoripopulation to enjoy comprehensive the control over their existing resources and taonga. These rights have paved to the development and generation of Mäori health funders and subsequent providers(TUHA–NZ a Treaty Understanding of Hauora in Aotearoa-New Zealand, 2017).

KoteTuatoru – Article Three – Oritetanga

According to the third article of the treaty, the Queen of England will provide full benefit and equal rights to the Mäori of New Zealand like any other citizens in England. This article is further helpful in curbing the health inequalities as it negates the chances of racism and social discrimination, one of the principal driving forces behind health inequalities(TUHA–NZ a Treaty Understanding of Hauora in Aotearoa-New Zealand, 2017).

 

Conclusion

Thus from the above discussion it can be concluded that the TeTiriti o Waitangi  signed with the Queen of England as a direct imact in framing the health plocies and promotion of health and wellbeing among the indegenious people in New Zealand with the special mention to Mäori. Moreover, the Mäori health Model (Hauora) critically examines the spiritual basis of the health and its associated factors on the well-being of the Mäori people.

 

References

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Bickerstaff, M., Beckmann, M., Gibbons, K., &Flenady, V. (2012).Recent cessation of smoking and its effect on pregnancy outcomes. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 52(1), pp. 54-58.

Cabinet Social Development Committee. (2004a). Reducing Inequalities: Next Steps. Cabinet Social Development Committee paper, Available at https://www.msd.govt.nz/ Retrieved October 2017.

Chan, W. C., Wright, C., Riddell, T., Wells, S., Kerr, A. J., Gala, G., & Jackson, R. (2008). Ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in New Zealand. The New Zealand Medical Journal (Online), vol. 121(1285).

Harris, R., Cormack, D., Tobias, M., Yeh, L. C., Talamaivao, N., Minster, J., &Timutimu, R. (2012). The pervasive effects of racism: experiences of racial discrimination in New Zealand over time and associations with multiple health domains. Social science & medicine, vol. 74(3), pp. 408-415.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.11.004

Harris, R., Tobias, M., Jeffreys, M., Waldegrave, K., Karlsen, S., &Nazroo, J. (2006). Effects of self-reported racial discrimination and deprivation on M?ori health and inequalities in New Zealand: cross-sectional study. The Lancet, vol. 367(9527), pp. 2005-2009.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68890-9

Healthcare Services in New Zealand | New Zealand Now.(2017). Newzealandnow.govt.nz. Retrieved 2 October 2017, from https://www.newzealandnow.govt.nz/living-in-nz/healthcare/healthcare-services

Jatrana, S., Crampton, P., & Norris, P. (2010).Ethnic differences in access to prescription medication because of cost in New Zealand. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, jech-2009. doi:10.1136/jech.2009.099101

Mitrou, F., Cooke, M., Lawrence, D., Povah, D., Mobilia, E., Guimond, E., &Zubrick, S. R. (2014). Gaps in Indigenous disadvantage not closing: a census cohort study of social determinants of health in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand from 1981–2006. BMC Public Health, vol. 14(1), pp. 201.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-201

Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi – ng?m?t?pono o tetiriti – TeAraEncyclopedia of New Zealand. (2017). Teara.govt.nz. Retrieved 2 October 2017, from https://teara.govt.nz/en/principles-of-the-treaty-of-waitangi-nga-matapono-o-te-tiriti

Rashbrooke, M. (Ed.). (2013). Inequality: A New Zealand Crisis. Bridget Williams Books.

Salmond, C. E., &Crampton, P. (2012).Development of New Zealand's deprivation index (NZDep) and its uptake as a national policy tool. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante'ePublique, S7-S11.vol. 103.pp. S7-S11.

Sheridan, N. F., Kenealy, T. W., Schmidt-Busby, J. I., & Rea, H. H. (2015). Population health in New Zealand 2000–2013: From determinants of health to targets. SAGE open medicine, 3, 2050312115573654.doi:  10.1177/2050312115573654

Smith, G. H. (2012). The politics of reforming Maori education: The transforming potential of Kura Kaupapa Maori. Towards successful schooling, 73-87.

TeTiriti o Waitangi / the Treaty of Waitangi and Health Promotion. (2017) (1st ed., p. 1). New Zealand. Retrieved from https://hauora.co.nz/resources/ToWandHP.pdf

The Health of M?ori Adults and Children. (2017) (1st ed., pp. 2-4). New Zealand. Retrieved from https://www.health.govt.nz/system/files/documents/publications/health-maori-adults-children-summary.pdf

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Tobias, M., &Yeh, L. C. (2006). Do all ethnic groups in New Zealand exhibit socio?economic mortality gradients?. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, vo. 30(4), pp. 343-349.DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-842X.2006.tb00847.x

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Tukuitonga, C. (2013). Pacific peoples in New Zealand. Published by the Medical Council of New Zealand, 65.

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