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Types Of Actions Involve Database

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1. What four main types of actions involve databases? Briefly discuss each.?
2. What are the responsibilities of the DBA and the database designers?
3. What is the difference between a database schema and a database state?
4. What is the difference between procedural and nonprocedural DMLs?
5. What is the difference between the two-tier and three-tier client/server architectures?


The database is a database system which allows users to maintain their database. There are basically four actions which involved in the database-

  • Define Database
  • Construct Database
  • Manipulate Database
  • Share Database
There are the basic actions which are necessary for the database users.

 Define Database

 The database definition is to define the database like database structure, database type to store data into database. It is called metadata of the data.

Construct Database

 Construct database is the process in which the data get stored into the database and can be maintained by the DBMS.

Manipulate Database

Manipulate database is to retrieve database by using query and to insert, update and delete the database also.

Share Database

 Share database is to share database among many users so that more than one user can access database at one time.

 DBA and the database designer both are responsible for data maintenance and data construction in an organization. Following are some responsibilities of DBA and the database designer-

  • Database Security
  • Design Database
  • Implement Data Models
  • Resolve Capacity Issues
  • Resolve Performance Issues
  • Maintain Database
 (TechTarget 2015)

 The database schema is the metadata. It is the initial stage of the database. When the database is defined and implemented first time, only database schema is defined at that time.

 The database state is the state of the database, which gets changed on every action upon the database. When the database is implemented first time, the database state is null and after inserting data into database, the database state gets changed.

 The database schema is called intension while the database state is called extension in the database. (GITTA 2006)

4 What is the difference between procedural and nonprocedural DMLs? 

 DML is a data manipulation language. Data manipulation operations are described following-

  • Insertion into database
  • Retrieve database
  • Edit database
  • Delete database

 Data manipulation language is the most important part of the DBMS. It is supported in all DBMS. There are two types of the data manipulation languages – Procedural Data Manipulation Language and Nonprocedural Data Manipulation Language.

Procedural Data Manipulation Language

 Procedural Data Manipulation Language is the language which defines what data needs to be retrieve and it defines the process also; after retrieving the data, another set of data can be retrieved by the same procedure.

 Nonprocedural Data Manipulation Language

 Nonprocedural Data Manipulation Language is the language which defines what data needs to be retrieve without specifying the process.

(Winstudent 2014)

 There are two types of the client server architecture-

  • Two-tier architecture
  • Three-tier architecture

 Two-tier architecture

 This is the basic type of the client server architecture. Two-tier architecture is generally used in all communication networks. Following figure is describing the process of two-tier architecture-


 In this the client sends the request to the server for the resources and the server responds directly to the client. There is no any third party involved in the complete process. The server does not call any other application or any other machine to accomplish the user request.

 Three-tier architecture

 In this architecture there is one middle layer exist between the user and the database system. The middle layer is the application server that interacts with the client and data server. Following three are the important units in the three-tier architecture-


 The client requests the resources to the server and is equipped with the user interface for the presentation of the response of the server.

 Application Server

The application server is the middle layer in the three-tier client server architecture. The application server provides the resources to the clients that are requested by the client from the user interface. The application server call the another database server to complete the specified task.

 Data Server

 The data server is the main important unit in the three-tier client server architecture. The data server provides the data to the application server that is required. Following figure is describing the process of three-tier architecture-




[1] Microsoft 2012, Client/Server Architecture, Viewed on 17th Jan 2015 <>

[2] Client-Server Architecture, Kathleen R. Murray May 2002, Viewed on 17th Jan 2015

[3]TechTarget 2015, White Paper: The role of the database administrator, Viewed on 17th Jan 2015 <>

[4]GITTA 2006, Database Schemes and Database Instances, Viewed on 17th Jan 2015 <>

[5] Winstudent 2014, The Database Manipulation Language (DML), Viewed on 17th Jan 2015 <> has become one of the leading assignment help provider in New York City and Boston. We provide top class auditing assignment help. Not only auditing, but we also cover more than 100 subjects and our writers deal with all types of assignments with utmost expertise. To make writing process faster and accurate, we have segmented our assignment experts' teams as per their expertise on writing different types of assignments. We guaranteed that students who buy our assignment online get solutions worth their investment.

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