Healthcare service is one of the essential frameworks, responsible for the wellbeing state of community people in terms of physical, mental and societal prospects. Often government reframes the public policy, make amendments in the existing acts, and focus on existing resources in health care settings to improve the health standard. The objective of these measures is to maintain the healthcare standard that meets the demand of the community.
The scope of the present paper is to discuss the variation and similarities of pattern, health economics and reframes that are present in UK and among other countries. Notably, for a simplified and effective comparison, it is necessary to mention some key points, based on which the healthcare system can be compared. Likewise, the key point should be based on critical data that are helpful for analysis. These data should be reflective towards the epidemiology like mortality, morbidity, risk factors, the prevalence rate of infection, cost per prescription, and quality outcome (Siciliani, Moran & Borowitz, 2013, pp.292). Other than this, the accessibility of people for primary care, hospital admission rate, waiting time and length of stays in a hospital is also reflective of same issues. In particular the comparison is made with reference to UK and India. The evidences used for the analysis of healthcare system in the present paper is thus collected based on published literatures from last five years by date.
The life-expectancy of people across UK differs significantly. In India, the average life expectancy of male and female is 64.6 and 67.7 respectively, according to health statistics of 2008-10. For UK, the same is 80.4 and 82.6 respectively for male and female. A similar trend is also evidenced with respect to standardized mortality ratio and healthy life expectancy; where the condition is worsen in India compared to UK (Lau, 2012, pp.195). It is noteworthy to mention that the overall health care standard is genuine and optimum in both countries, but population factor is one of the major challenge in this regard. Hence, it can also be concluded that the need is to focus on meeting the demand of health care need as the performance and effectiveness are appropriate, particularly for India compared to UK.
According to health economics, health services in UK have increased the expenditure almost double in the 2010-11 term, compared to 2000-01. The figure of invested revenue increased from £53 to £120 billion. The increased rate of expenditure is attributed to the modernization of facilities with technology, and recruitment of number of healthcare professionals (Greenhalgh, 2013, pp.e125). Opening of new health care organizations, sponsoring conferences, increased concern for competencies of professionals are also included under the expenditure. Comparing the same figures for India, it is 51,417 Crore Rupees (£56.12 billion), and that the increase of expenditure in last 10 years is 20%. Note that the overall expenditure of India in 2010-11 is less compared to UK, which is mainly because of less implementation in the work process. Presently, almost in every organizations of UK, electronic health records, telenursing, day care center for elder people is active, for which India lag behind. In india, the population are more in poverty, rural location and at below baseline level of education. Based on the demographic, geographic and behavioral factors, it is concluded that health care delivery is of India is less compared to UK. The reason is also attributed to higher population and presence of cultural diversity in higher proportion for India. The incidence of ills health condition and risk factors with childhood obesity, smoking status, poor socio-economic status and occupational disease is also higher in India (Gupta, 2012, pp.e44098). Overall, based on the statistics, the need for healthcare service is higher for india compared to UK.
The average number of general physicians, dentist and medical staff and nurses are the primary criteria for analyzing the cost of resources for health services. Other than this the elements such as protocols, machinery, bed system and associated resources in health institution also account for the same cost. Overall the number of professionals and health organizations are more in number compared to UK. On the contrary, comparing the same number with respect to the population of the nation, it is UK, which dominates. Thus, despite of overall expenditure in India, the quality of service is more accurate in UK (Sinha, 2013, pp.86).
Health priorities in every nation vary with time, but some of the critical areas are limited in this regard. The constant are included public health, cancer care and waiting time in hospital. Government administration have allowed for their population to choose and decide the overall budget for their health expenditure in both the nations. The total public spending is comparable for India since 2008-10 (16%), which further increased to 20 % in the year 2010-11 (Balarajan, Selvaraj & Subramanian, 2011, pp.505). On the contrary, the expenditure in concern to public spending is almost constant for UK which is 16% from last 10 years (Wallace & Kulu, 2014, pp.694).
Disease management, patient counseling and patient education and consent are same in both the nation. Likewise, the competency level and the assessment during the recruitment are easier in India compared to UK. There exists challenge to the individual level (for both government and private organization) for India in maintaining appropriate number of professionals to meet the growing health services related demands. The average general physician for UK people is constant since 2008 to 2011 which is more than 80 GPs per 100,000 people. The figure for India is 55.3 GPs per 100,000 people (Steele & Cylus, 2012, pp.1; Pramesh, 2014, pp.e223). Similarly, the number of nurses per 100,000 people is 150 in UK and 65 in India. Note that the average taxable income for a general physician in the year 2009-10 is £89,500 in UK and that in India is 60,000 Rupees (£654) (Blackman, 2012, pp.49; Pramesh, 2014, pp.e223).
With the above statistics and figures, it is common to find that the overall expenditure is comparable for India. Note that the complications in conjunction with the help risk in children, adolescent, and elderly people are higher in India compared to that of UK. This is attributed to the larger population of the nation. It is hence despite more investment and more concern towards the policy priority matters, the overall health outcome is less for India, compared to UK. Apart from this, it would be appropriate to state the maintenance of healthcare standards and measures for health restoration are poor in India (Prinja, 2012, pp.e30362). Considering the analysis point of view, other consideration, such as emergency services, mental health status, per capital income, and education are also crucial for determining the healthcare aspect of the community.
BALARAJAN, Y., SELVARAJ, S., & SUBRAMANIAN, S. V. (2011). Health care and equity in India. The Lancet, 377(9764), pp.505-515.
BLACKMAN, T., HARRINGTON, B., ELLIOTT, E., GREENE, A., HUNTER, D. J., MARKS, L., ... & WILLIAMS, G. (2012). Framing health inequalities for local intervention: comparative case studies. Sociology of health & illness, 34(1), pp.49-63.
GUPTA, R., DEEDWANIA, P. C., SHARMA, K., GUPTA, A., GUPTHA, S., ACHARI, V., ... & GUPTA, R. (2012). Association of educational, occupational and socioeconomic status with cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians: a cross-sectional study. PloS one, 7(8), pp.e44098.
GREENHALGH, T., MORRIS, L., WYATT, J. C., THOMAS, G., & GUNNING, K. (2013). Introducing a nationally shared electronic patient record: Case study comparison of Scotland, England, Wales and Northern Ireland. International journal of medical informatics, 82(5), pp.e125-e138.
LAU, R. S., JOHNSON, S., & KAMALANABHAN, T. J. (2012). Healthy life expectancy in the context of population health and ageing in India. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, 24(1), pp.195-207.
PRAMESH, C. S., BADWE, R. A., BORTHAKUR, B. B., CHANDRA, M., RAJ, E. H., KANNAN, T., ... & SULLIVAN, R. (2014). Delivery of affordable and equitable cancer care in India. The lancet oncology, 15(6), pp.e223-e233.
PRINJA, S., BAHUGUNA, P., PINTO, A. D., SHARMA, A., BHARAJ, G., KUMAR, V., ... & KUMAR, R. (2012). The cost of universal health care in India: a model based estimate. PLoS One, 7(1), pp.e30362.
SICILIANI, L., MORAN, V., & BOROWITZ, M. (2014). Measuring and comparing health care waiting times in OECD countries. Health Policy, 118(3), pp.292-303.
SINHA, S., PEACH, G., POLONIECKI, J. D., THOMPSON, M. M., & HOLT, P. J. (2013). Studies using English administrative data (Hospital Episode Statistics) to assess health-care outcomes—systematic review and recommendations for reporting. The European Journal of Public Health, 23(1), pp.86-92.
WALLACE, M., & KULU, H. (2014). Migration and Health in England and Scotland: a Study of Migrant Selectivity and Salmon Bias. Population, Space and Place, 20(8), pp.694-708.
STEELE, D., & CYLUS, J. (2012). United Kingdom (Scotland): health system review. Health systems in transition, 14(9), pp.1-150.
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