Globalization and technological advent have allowed catering to diversified customers and employees (Barney, 2010). Employees are the primary driving resource behind any organization and multinational corporations treat employees as assets. A concept oriented at flexible working of employees has been rising across organizations. The concept has been directly associated with organizational performance evaluated across various business cases. The concept of flexible working arrangements (FWA) has been gaining prominence since the mid-1970s, when several researchers were assessing impact associated with flexitime on performance levels of worker. The concept relates to allowing freedom to the worker for completing tasks assigned to them. The new generation employee, most commonly referred to as Generation Millennials value freedom as a great parameter associated with their work (Golden, 2012). The poster aims at explaining ways in which flexitime arrangements for workers have led to increase in worker’s performance across organizations. A methodology followed by critical review of relevant literature sources will help arrive at suitable interpretation regarding results.
The study aims at evaluating positive correlation between flexitime arrangements of workers leading to increase in their productivity through various literature sources.
An increasing contemporary issue in business is to analyse ways to increase productivity amongst workers. While various methods have been deployed to arrive at ways and means to increase workers’ productivity none had been promising (Kattenbach, 2010). Various behavioral scholars have been connecting the variable of productivity to teamwork, home-based work, flex-time, purchased leave, part-time hours and many more. There had been multiple qualitative and quantitative based analysis to help arrive at crucial findings related to the study. For the purpose of this study, critical evaluation of relevant journals and articles have conducted in this relevant area.
A comprehensive analysis followed by drawing of conclusion relative to study will be entailed. An inductive reasoning will form the basis for methods used for interpreting results for this study. Through secondary data, qualitative in nature and inductive reasoning analysis has been conducted. Secondary or second-hand data had been collected and not primary data as there was limited time availability to conduct the study. All ethical procedures had been followed for the study. The study suffers from certain limitations of secondary data, that is bound to creep in. In spite of several limitations, each data has been cross-checked and verified to determine reliability. The methodology has been adopted in accordance to the study to arrive at its findings easily.
In order to conduct this analysis it was pertinent to develop relevant literature sources that could provide in-depth understanding related to the topic. For understanding this complex topic several literature sources including books and journals had been utilized. L.M. De Menezes and C. Kelliher (2011) provides an integral insight into the topic of flexitime arrangement ever since its introduction (De Menezes, 2011). The article reveals way of flexitime that was practiced in the 1970s by linking dataset of employees and employers. Many countries around the world have included statutory rights for employees allowing serious consideration for flexitiming arrangements. Several employers have been advised by the government of countries to include family-friendly employment practices. Aim behind government supporting such a movement was to enable employees attain a better work-life balance with high demanding job roles, for enhancing productivity. Empirical results depicts correlation between work time flexibility with job insecurity and stress or burnout factors. 2004 Employment Relations Survey (WERS) provides an employee and manager’s database on effective use related to flexible timings. Though there were several limitations faced in the study yet it reflected potential areas for future impact.
Another pertinent article in this area is by D. Eldridge and T. Nisar (2011) which evaluates organization impact from employee flexitiming arrangements (Eldridge, 2011). The scope of this article addresses job demands and employee stress that affects performance amongst employees. Workers within organization experiences mental pressure and mental fatigue which often leads to absenteeism, further aggravating into turnover. Organization that do not indulge in employee work-life balance practices are more exposed to risks of high recruitment, selection, induction and training costs due to high employee turnover. Strategies adopted to allow employees cope with stress and deal with increasing workload were often left redundant with minimum impact on creating job likeliness. However, when employers toyed with the idea of schedule to match up with employee’s schedule it often helped yield positive results. As employees now felt that the organization cared about them and they had job control (Allen, 2013). Employees when allowed to undertake flexible timing performed in a better way than they did when they were subjected to fixed schedules.
- Hayman (2010) analysed in his article that flexible timing had a high positive correlation with employee well-being(Hayman, 2010). The characteristics feature of employee well-being was found to be greatly associated with levels of job security and decision making autonomy. Flexibility has been seen to reduce sickness absence, overtime, stress and turnover overall impacting increase in productivity. This literature article clearly draws upon a positive correlation between employee flexibility to perform a given role at the time that matches employee is bound to increase performance, reducing negative impacts.
Results & Discussion
Reviewing pertinent literatures provides that organization that allowed employee flexibility related to timing had been able to impact their productivity (Ernst Kossek, 2010). There are various aspects of performance that is reflected to be impacted from employee being allowed flexible timing. There are three areas in which the results and discussions are based as given below;
- Results and Discussion 1Flexitime impact on Stress and Security:
Organizations that included flexitime as a method by which employees could perform their job roles had higher productivity. This was a result form the fact that employees now experienced less amounts of stress and burnout factor as they were able to manage their home based responsibilities. Employees also felt greater sense of job security and carried their roles with higher skill set and diligence (Smith, 2010). There are a feeling of reliability that they developed once allowed to perform their job roles according to their discretion.
- Results and Discussion 2 Flexitime impact on Control and Discretion:
Employees revealed greater control and discretion over their job roles once they were allowed flexible timings. Employees that were made to work in shifts had higher levels of dependence on their floor managers or team leaders to complete their tasks. On the contrary when allowed flexible timings at work, they took greater interests to perform the task with responsibility. Levels of control increased with flexible timing as now employees had the responsibility to complete their job roles as assigned. Moreover, they were seen to apply greater discretionary power over their tasks which led to increase in productivity levels. Average performance levels of employees were seen to increase when they were allowed flexible timings.
- Results and Discussion 3Flexitime impact on absenteeism and turnover:
Contemporary businesses are keen on adapting the concept of flexible timing as several researches reveal positive attributes with productivity. When employees were allowed to work according to flexible timings they were found to be less absent (Nijp, 2012). Moreover employees had experienced higher levels of engagement with the organization that led to decreasing turnover. With decreasing absenteeism and turnover, organizations experienced less costs associated with recruitment, selection, induction and training. Moreover, flexitiming helped organizations achieve competitive advantages as well.
Analysing results related to employee flexible time arrangements with productivity in organizations reveals various indicators. Most significant factor amongst employee being allowed flexi time is work-life balance that greatly helps reduce burnout. Organizations especially multinational corporations are reorganizing their work practices for providing a better work life balance to employees. This ensures that organization not only increasing job commitment and employee retention but also keeping up with competitive practices. Relevant literatures on flexitiming provides that organizations that do not adopt such practices are more likely to lag behind in creation of competitive advantages. Flexitiming allows better job control amongst employees and reduction in their stress factor with the job. Therefore, contemporary businesses in order to gain competitive advantages in the market and achieve higher levels of employee satisfaction needs to adopt flexitiming based strategies.
Allen, T.D., Johnson, R.C., Kiburz, K.M. and Shockley, K.M., 2013. Work–family conflict and flexible work arrangements: Deconstructing flexibility. Personnel psychology, 66(2), pp.345-376.
Barney, C.E. and Elias, S.M., 2010. Flex-time as a moderator of the job stress-work motivation relationship: A three nation investigation. Personnel Review, 39(4), pp.487-502.
Eldridge, D. and Nisar, T., 2011. Employee and organizational impacts of flexitime work arrangements. Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, 66(2), pp.213-234.
Ernst Kossek, E., Lewis, S. and Hammer, L.B., 2010. Work—life initiatives and organizational change: Overcoming mixed messages to move from the margin to the mainstream. human relations, 63(1), pp.3-19.
De Menezes, L.M. and Kelliher, C., 2011. Flexible working and performance: A systematic review of the evidence for a business case. International Journal of Management Reviews, 13(4), pp.452-474.
Golden, L., 2012. The effects of working time on productivity and firm performance, research synthesis paper.
Hayman, J., 2010. Flexible work schedules and employee well-being. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations (Online), 35(2), p.76.
Kattenbach, R., Demerouti, E. and Nachreiner, F., 2010. Flexible working times: Effects on employees' exhaustion, work-nonwork conflict and job performance. Career Development International, 15(3), pp.279-295.
Nijp, H.H., Beckers, D.G., Geurts, S.A., Tucker, P. and Kompier, M.A., 2012. Systematic review on the association between employee worktime control and work-non-work balance, health and well-being, and job-related outcomes. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, pp.299-313.
Smith, K.T., 2010. Work-life balance perspectives of marketing professionals in generation Y. Services Marketing Quarterly, 31(4), pp.434-447.