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Understand The Tradeoffs: Switch Evolution Add in library

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Task 1:

The company are considering relative merits of public, private and hybrid cloud solutions. They are also considering replacing their desktop PCs with thin or zero clients. In a formal memorandum to the CU CEO.

• Outline the case for each of the three deployment methods,

• Outline the use of remote desktop solutions (sometimes called Desktop as a Service),

• Differentiate between thin and zero clients providing two examples of each.

Your memorandum should finish with a justified recommendation for one of the cloud deployment models and a single computer model that would be suitable should a remote desktop solution be chosen.

Task 2:

Create a subnet structure for the company that reflects their requirements. You should clearly

• Identify each of the subnets,

• The network address of each subnet,

• The range of host addresses for each subnet,

• The subnet mask for each subnet.

Create a topology diagram clearly showing how the routers and switches would be interconnected. (represent each of the subnets by a single switch)

Task 3:

As part of the proposed design form a consultant employed by CU level 3 switches are used. The CIO is somewhat set in his ways and has not been keeping up with technology as well as he should. Write a short report that explains

• The function of layers 2 and 3 of the OSI model,

• How these map on to the TCP/IP model,

• The protocols that the company are likely to be using at these levels,

• The difference between level 2 switches, level 3 switches and routers,
• Justify the use of routers for the gateway between the company and the internet but level 3 switches within the company.?


Task 1

Public, Private and Hybrid Cloud Solution

The cloud solution are provided in three categories: Public, Private and Hybrid.

Public cloud solution has internet provided by the cloud service provider, where software and data storage resources are made available. The cloud services, in this environment, are virtually provided. The services are pooled for construction. The physical resources re shared over internet. The resources can be accessed over Internet, which is on a public network.

The private cloud solution involves firewall behind the cloud services. The services included here are: automation, metered usages, self-service and consolidation. The network is virtual here too, but over a private network. Thus, this is a secure cloud.

The hybrid cloud solution is a combination of private and public cloud solution. Here, some resources are shared over internet and pooled, and others are behind firewall and on a private network.

The application on a public cloud solution is shared over internet, and are termed as Software-as-a-service. Some of the service providers of public cloud are: Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Google AppEngine, Windows Azure Service Platform etc. The public cloud service are used by the organisation when an economic solution is sought for. They are inexpensive as the applications, software, hardware, bandwidth etc. are beard by the cloud service provider. The cost included in it involves only for the usage done, as it is mostly pay per use type of model. But on a downside, the model lack some security, has a limited configuration, and thus, if the services required are to be very secure, this cannot be used. This service is used when the applications of the company are to be used by a mass of people at different locations. The application codes has to be developed by user. The security plan has also to be y implemented by user. They are suited when work are done collaboratively. 

The private cloud service is provided and owned by a single company, and hence, the services are very flexible. Services are scalable and provisional as per the use of the customer. The cloud architecture data centre is owned, maintained and controlled by a single company. They are the most expensive cloud service, in which rates may vary as per the customisation. They have most secure connection due to its security features and customisation, and all the assets are controlled by the firewall. They are used by large companies. They are best suited when the security and control is the main concern of the organisation, the data privacy is of uttermost importance, and the funds are available in adequate amount to run a data centre independently.

The hybrid cloud solution involves the above two, in a definite proportion. The private cloud is managed with a dependency on public servers. They have medium cost, and are generally offered on flexible rates. They are best suited when privacy and security is required on a Software-as-a-service. Here, a Virtual Private Network (VPN) is implemented by the cloud service provided for security. The data can be kept secure, at the same time made available to the customer on a public domain.

Remote Desktop Solution

Remote desktop solution provides the user with an operating system or a software/application, which enables them to control the computer at a different location. The remote desktop feature can be used to control the computer as well as a server, which can be even virtually present on a cloud, and use it just like a local system. They generally use internet to connect to the remote desktop server (the computer which is controlled) by remote desktop client (the computer which controls). They allow accessing the computer when on the go, from any location when an internet service is available. They are also called as “Desktop as a service”.


Thin and Zero Clients

Thin and Zero client both provide virtual desktop access. The zero client gives the access to a data centre to the client, and is very light weight application. Whereas, the thin client is like a computer, and expansion options are limited here. They provide complexity in connecting to the data centre for access. For example, in think client, a plug-and-play USB can be used to access the virtual desktop by plugging it in the USB port of the system directly. Whereas, in a zero client, the local plug and play option is not available, the system has to be connected to the internet for access to virtual desktop. Thus, this makes zero client very fast, but provides a risk of lock-in. They are developed for a specific purpose, with the specific protocol implementations.

Again, as an example, the thin client has an OS installed in with, which a light weight OS, like Linux or Embedded Windows. Whereas, the zero client has a processor on board, which has been designed for a specific protocol, like Microsoft RDP, SPICE, VMware PCoIP etc.


A hybrid cloud solution is most suitable for the company here, because they get the security and privacy as desired, but at a low cost.  They also provide the remote desktop connection, and thus, can be controlled from a different location. They are cost effective and efficient.

Task 2

IP Allocation Table:

Subnet Name

Addresses Needed

Allocated Number of Addresses


Subnet Mask

Range of Addresses









Sales & Marketing








Purchasing & Warehouse








Estates & Services




Legal & Directorate





Total IP Addresses needed: 4736

Total allocated IP address: 6192

allocated IP address

Network Topology

Task 3

A system switch (additionally called exchanging centre, spanning centre, authoritatively MAC bridge) is a PC organizing gadget that join gadgets together on a PC system, by utilizing parcel changing to get, process and forward information to the destination gadget. Not at all like less propelled system centre points, a system switch advances information just to one or numerous gadgets that need to get it, instead of television the same information out of each of its ports.

A system switch is a multiport system connect that uses equipment locations to process and forward information at the information connection (layer 2) of the OSI model. Switches can likewise handle information at the system (layer 3) by moreover fusing steering usefulness that most usually uses IP locations to perform parcel sending; such switches are ordinarily known as layer-3 switches or multilayer switches. Beside most regularly utilized Ethernet switches, they exist for different sorts of systems, including Fibre Channel, Asynchronous Transfer Mode, and InfiniBand. The main Ethernet switch was presented by Kalpana in 1990.

The system layer gives the practical and procedural method for exchanging variable length information groupings from a source to a destination by means of one or more systems, while keeping up the nature of administration asked for by the Transport layer. The Network layer performs system directing capacities, and may additionally perform fracture and reassembly, and report conveyance blunders. Switches work at this layer—sending information all through the developed system and making the Internet conceivable. This is a legitimate tending to plan – qualities are picked by the system engineer. The tending to plan is progressive.

The best-known case of a layer 3 convention is the Internet Protocol (IP). It deals with the connectionless exchange of information one bounce at once, from end framework to entrance switch, to switch to switch, and from departure switch to destination end framework. It is not in charge of solid conveyance to a next bounce, however just for the discovery of error parcels so they may be tossed. At the point when the medium of the following bounce can't acknowledge a parcel in its present length, IP is in charge of dividing into adequately little parcels that the medium can acknowledge it.

Layer 2 works with the Data-Link Layer and MAC addresses/ Broadcast spaces. Layer 3 is the Network Layer and works with IP tending to and Routing.

Various layer administration conventions, a capacity characterized in the Management Annex, ISO 7498/4, fit in with the system layer. These incorporate steering conventions, multicast bunch administration, system layer data and lapse, and system layer location task. It is the capacity of the payload that makes these have a place with the system layer, not the convention that conveys them.

The information connection layer gives the utilitarian and procedural intends to exchange information between system substances and to distinguish and conceivably remedy mistakes that may happen in the physical layer. Initially, this layer was expected for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint media, normal for wide territory media in the phone framework. Neighbourhood structural planning, which included telecast fit multi-access media, was created freely of the ISO work, in IEEE Project 802. IEEE work expected sub layering and administration works not needed for WAN utilization. In advanced practice, just lapse discovery, not stream control utilizing sliding window, is available in cutting edge information join conventions, for example, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), and, on neighbourhood, the IEEE 802.2 LLC layer is not utilized for most conventions on Ethernet, and, on other neighbourhood, its stream control and affirmation components are infrequently utilized. Sliding window stream control and affirmation is utilized at the vehicle layers by conventions, for example, TCP, yet is still utilized as a part of specialties where X.25 offers execution performance.

Bridging Technology has been around since the 1980s (and possibly prior). Spanning includes division of neighbourhood (LANs) at the Layer 2 level. A multiport connect commonly finds out about the Media Access Control (MAC) addresses on each of its ports and straightforwardly passes MAC casings bound to those ports. These extensions likewise guarantee that casings bound for MAC addresses that lie on the same port as the starting station are not sent to alternate ports. For the purpose of this dialog, we consider just Ethernet LANs.

Layer 2 switches viably give the same usefulness. They are like multiport scaffolds in that they learn and forward edges on every port. The real distinction is the inclusion of equipment that guarantees that different exchanging ways inside the switch can be dynamic in the meantime.

Layer 2 switches themselves go about as IP end hubs for Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) administration, Telnet, and Web based administration. Such administration usefulness includes the vicinity of an IP stack on the switch alongside User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), Telnet, and SNMP capacities. The switches themselves have a MAC address with the goal that they can be tended to as a Layer 2 end hub while additionally giving straightforward switch capacities. Layer 2 exchanging does not, by and large, include changing the MAC outline. On the other hand, there are circumstances when switches change the MAC outline. The IEEE 802.1Q Committee is dealing with a VLAN standard that includes labelling a MAC outline with the VLAN it has a place with; this labelling procedure includes changing the MAC outline. Crossing over innovation likewise includes the Spanning-Tree Protocol. This is needed in a multibridge system to stay away from circles.

The same standards additionally apply towards Layer 2 switches, and most business Layer 2 switches bolster the Spanning-Tree Protocol. The past talk gives a diagram of Layer 2 exchanging functions. Layer 2 exchanging is MAC casing based, does not include adjusting the MAC outline, when all is said in done, and gives straightforward exchanging in standard parallel with MAC outlines. Since these switches work at Layer 2, they are convention autonomous. In any case, Layer 2 exchanging does not scale well due to shows. In spite of the fact that VLANs assuage this issue to some degree, there is most likely a requirement for machines on distinctive VLANs to convey. One illustration is the circumstance where an organization has various intranet servers on independent subnets (and subsequently VLANs), bringing about a considerable measure of intersubnet movement. In such cases, utilization of a switch is unavoidable; Layer 3 switches enter as of right now.

Layer 3 exchanging is a generally new term, which has been developed by a various sellers to depict their items. For instance, one school utilizes this term to depict quick IP directing by means of equipment, while another school utilizes it to portray Multi-Protocol over ATM (MPOA). With the end goal of this exchange, Layer 3 switches are superfast defeaters that do Layer 3 sending in equipment.

Layer 3 switches are switches with quick sending done by means of equipment. IP sending commonly includes a course lookup, decrementing the Time To Live (TTL) number and recalculating the checksum, and sending the casing with the fitting MAC header to the right yield port. Lookups should be possible in equipment, as can the decrementing of the TTL and the recalculation of the checksum. The switches run directing conventions, for example, Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) or Routing Information Protocol (RIP) to speak with other Layer 3 switches or switches and fabricate their steering tables. These steering tables are gazed upward to focus the course for an approaching bundle.



"Hubs Versus Switches – Understand the Tradeoffs" (PDF). 2002. Retrieved 2013-12-10.

Thayumanavan Sridhar (September 1998). "Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switch Evolution". The Internet Protocol Journal 1 (2). Cisco Systems. Retrieved 2014-08-05.

Robert J. Kohlhepp (2000-10-02). "The 10 Most Important Products of the Decade". Network Computing. Retrieved 2008-02-25.

Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Firewall Services Module, Cisco Systems,2007

"Traffic regulators: Network interfaces, hubs, switches, bridges, routers, and firewalls" (PDF). Cisco Systems. 1999-09-14. Retrieved 2012-07-27.

"What is a Network Switch vs. a Router?". Cisco Systems. Retrieved 2012-07-27.

"RFC 1286 - Definitions of Managed Objects for Bridges". 1989-07-14. Retrieved 2013-10-19.

Hamilton, Kenneth; Clark, Kenedy (1999-08-01). "Cisco LAN Switching". Encyclopedia of Things. Cisco Press. Retrieved 1999-08-01.


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