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Significance of the Subject

Discuss about the UNHCR Commitment to Refugee Women.

The focus is on UNHCR Commitment to Refugee Women (UNHCR) who tends to encourage the meaningful participation of the women in the management. Here, the committees of the refuses are in the urban and the rural camp settings which includes the return areas as well. The overall standards are achieved through 50% of the representation by women in conditions where they can easily participate.

The focus of the essay is on how gender research with critique of international policy framework has been able to focus on requirements to support refugee with returnee and internal displacement of women through human rights, negotiation and leadership skills, with training and knowledge sharing of instruments. The individual’s registration of the refugees is the fundamental to ensure that one can exercise for the basic rights as well.

The thesis is to highlight about how UNHCR is able to help in the meaningful participation of women with proper management and leadership committees of refugees in rural and urban areas.

The outline highlights about different documentation procedures to ensure that individual security, freedom of movement and the capacity to register is access through the essential services.

For UNHCR, it has been seen that there are individual registration and the documentation where all the refugee women is fundamental to ensure about the exercising of the basic rights. It also provide them with the documentation for the individual security and the freedom of movement with the capacity to register and trace the lost children. Here, the access is to the essential services with supporting the property claims and then ensuring the rights of the political standards (UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 2001). The operations are based on ensuring that the registration and the documentation of the activities need to meet the needs of the non-discriminatory manner.

With better access and control of the services, the resources can limit the refugees who are internally displaced, and the returnee of the women’s capacity is to protect themselves and the community. With this situation, the women and the girls are directly exposed to the sexual exploitation and the abuse. The operations need to ensure about the participation of the women directly for making the decisions with the focus on how one can handle and manage the distribution of the food and the non-food items.

It is related to how the women role in the security of food and the family livelihood will require to work on the consideration of the assessment phase with the proper operational management cycle (Bansak et al., 2016). There are limitations on the access of the women with the vocational and the technical training with better employment opportunities. This is considered to design the projects that respond to the needs of women and the capacities. The affirmative action targets the women to ensure that there is an equitable impact of projects on the women and the men as well.

Thesis

UNHCR tends to place the prevention and a proper response to the sexual and the gender-based violence which is set with the wider framework of the gender equality with mainstreaming and empowerment. The guidelines on Prevention and the Response to the Sexual and the Gender Based Violence is based on the applicability for the involvement of the men and the boys with due attention that has to be paid to the members of the population (Jacobsen, 2015). It tends to address the sexual and the gender-based violence which needs to handle the community-based approach with certain target work to address the SGBV ( Sexual and Gender Based Violence) prevention and response. The preparation of the country programs and then ensuring the staff that UNHCR operations are placed in standard operating procedures with response to SGBV (Chatelard, 2016).

Traditionally, it has been seen that UNHCR has played the important role for the management of the refugee flow through Indonesia to Australia. Here, the times are rolling with the less pronounced factors to effectively handle the no power in this situation. Here, the refugees had largely able to plan that there are official channels which are being forced to wait till there has been the receiver country who is accepting them (?çduygu et al., 2016). The processes are based on how increased recalcitrance of the Australian Government can have the impact on the IOs with the achievements based on the spectrum of success. The branches are defined to include how the protection and assistance of those who are seeking for the asylum as refugee are looking for the solutions.  The perceptions of the International Organizational roles and the importance is based on the widely debated academic literature where the views are ranging for the proper implementation of the mechanisms of the state interest. It highlights about the different shells that includes the interest and the behavior which is based on the world power with certain political agendas. The structure and the agency has been able to gain the prominent form where the theory highlights about the different formations of the individual with the reinforcement of the structural shape (Hatton, 2016).

It has been seen that the refugees like the women and the girls are facing the issues related to the physical, sexual and the psychological violence. The violence tends to constitute the gross violation of the human rights. It includes that there are hostage taking, rape and the sexual slavery which leads to the infliction of the HIV?AIDS and the other domestic violence. The refugee women are also subjected to the sexual abuse with the harassment by the security guards, with customers and the immigration officials. The women are then exposed to the sexual harassment in the camps which has been set by the security guards, police and the male refugees as well. The reported incidents of violent are the sexual violence which is mainly against the refugee women that has also led to heightening the awareness of the needs to take the specific protection measures for the physical and the physio social support of the refugee women. The protection activities tend to include the details about how the different situations need to be handled with the sexually transmitted diseases and the prevalent gynecological disorders.

Outline of Essay

A special project in Kenya, “Women Victims of Violence Project” has been introduced which highlights about the Kenya sexual violence. It includes the incorporation of the different range of the preventing measures with reducing the incidents related to the sexual aggregations still occurring in Dadaab (Cookson et al., 2015).

As per the analysis, it has been seen that UNHCR is being positioned for the future where the displacement is on the rise and the resources are to resolve it with the increasingly constrained as countries where the budgets are turned inwards (Hainmueller et al., 2016). Here, the Innovative Services are talking about how the refugees are able to host the communities with the colleagues in the field and then craft up the different approaches for the local and the systematic change. With changing autonomy and accountability which has not been developed quickly, there is a major scope of how the legitimacy tends to diminish when they are not effective for the accomplishment of the goals with the broader societal values. Here, the measurement of the values is through determining the different factors which include the inter-governmental organizations who have the certain values related to the arguments depending upon the intellectual power and the financial standards for pursuing the goals (Mellou et al., 2017). The autonomy is based on the bureaucracies with the responsibilities that are for the delegated authorities that is conferred upon the establishment of the member states. The expert authority tends to develop the through the reputation and then work on the specialized knowledge and experiences. With the uncovering and the clarification of the ability to work under the particular scope and freedom, there is principle agent theory that focus on the sources of influence which includes member states as well. The information asymmetry with international organization tends to have a chance where the decision-making processes are defined through the information advantage over the member states. Hence, the international organizations have a better chance to affect the decision making when they tend to face several principles which are based on enabling the IO to play the principles which are set against one other (Langlois et al., 2016).

Here, the procedures are based on the constructivist and the rationalist theory where the insights are about how to analyze the IO autonomy and then work on the different standards of the comprehensive framework for the assessment. Here, the principal agent theory define the forms which focus on the principal control strategies over the agent which tends to lack on the providing of analysis and understanding of how the agents use to evade the controls. The focus is on the agent to work with the increased agent autonomy with identifying the strategies where the agents tend to make use of the utilization of authority with delegated, moral and the expert patterns  (Georgakopoulou et al., 2016). The theory is set through the manipulation of stakeholder incentives with ability to play  interests of one-another. It is important to understand the structures which are embedded in organization that works with the expansive and the influential roles that tool the following end of Cold War.

Theory and Autonomy

Considering rooted frames and the choices which are available, the international framework is to make the changes with understanding the needs for embedded and constraints that the organization faces. The international system has been dominated by the sites where the sovereignty is based on the power and the authority. The non-state actors are considered to work with humanitarian assistance where local networks and working relationships play an important role for the survival of UNHCR. The effectiveness is based on the operations with using strategies of autonomy where it is necessary to understand about what UN structure faces with the internal culture and tensions that are important (Williams et al., 2016).

Refugees have been seen to be consistent throughout where there are certain forma structures that were created in history. UNHCR works on providing the organization with protection of refugees with finding solutions to their plight. The limitations of the authority and the autonomous ability is to work on the restraining actions where the member states create the advisory mechanisms that tends to approve the programs and budgets.

The UNHCR Mandate includes the duties of protecting the refugees and then finding the solutions to act as the constraint on organization (Abdul Rahim et al., 2017). There are different organizations working on the constrained behavior where the nature requires to match with political solutions. Here, the entrusted factors are to act as custodian over the international refugee regime to fulfill the mandates (Doocy et al., 2015). It is important to focus on the designing and working on the principles of mainstreaming or integration of refugee women issues and the concerns where the politics and the guidelines are important to be analyzed. It seeks to create the proper organizational culture with accounting the different needs and the concerns related to work on the assessment and planning of protection with programs and the policies. Here, the integration is set through designing and delivery of the multi-sectoral programs where the emphasis is on the basis of sexual violence that is mainstreaming of the gender perspectives.

The women are seen not only facing the persecutions related to the ground of race, language and the ethnicity. They are also facing the issues related to the grounds of gender which tends to create the additional barriers for the women employment of the human rights. The gender-based persecution tends to manifest in different ways. Hence, there are different results of transgression of social mores for which the sanctions is death (Hoffstaedter, 2015). It has been seen in UNHCR there are selected Government from Europe and North America who are working on the processing of the claims and then handling the gender-based persecution. The issues of the cultural relativism and the human traditional practices are addressed where the community awareness campaigns are found to have the harmful effects of the childhood marriages and the female genital mutilation. The high sensitive nature of the issues is meant wherein Ethiopia, the support has been mainly about working on the community awareness campaigns where the project aims to promote the beneficial traditional practices like the breast feeding and then eradicating the other harmful traditional practices like the mutilation of the female genital, food taboos, skin cutting etc. UNHCR has been working on the World Food Programs who tend to promote the girl’s education so that the early marriages are also discourages (Phillips, 2016). The situations include the forms where the widowed tends to make use of the right to land and then access the productive resources like the land and credits. It ensures the self-reliance and the right of survival of the women and the families. The peace building by the women in the armed conflict situations is through securing and maintaining the peace where they must be represented through the different levels of decision making and resolution of conflicts. The armed conflicted includes the role of the women which is important for preserving the role of social order. The women makes an important approach for the peace education within the families and the societies that is important for the proper disposition of the culture of peace with upholding the justice and the rule of law, tolerance and understanding.

Food and Non-Items are Managed and Distributed

Conclusion

The active effort needs to be made by the countries to make sure that there are refugee women with the equal access to and the full participation in the management of the camp and the other activities. The participation includes the leadership structures and the management of the committees which is done in a proper manner (Acarturk et al., 2015). The major promotion of the activities is to encourage the participation of the refuge women in the management of with properly working on the gender sensitive planning. The efforts need to be focused on building the gender sensitive corporate culture where the process of building is to work on gender sensitive patterns through the attitudinal and behavioral changes. The focus is on how the processes are able to work with  greater awareness and sensitivity. The People Oriented Training has introduced the functional concepts of gender analysis with properly focusing on the program planning for better operational procedures (Blanchet et al., 2016). The gender analysis is the mechanism for the gender concern where UNHCR tends to begin with the better gender sensitivity training for the different staff members through the Division of Human Resource Management.

References

Abdul Rahim, N.R., Benson, J., Grocke, K., Vather, D., Zimmerman, J., Moody, T. and Mwanri, L., 2017. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in newly arrived refugees attending the Migrant Health Service, South Australia. Helicobacter, 22(2).

Acarturk, C., Konuk, E., Cetinkaya, M., Senay, I., Sijbrandij, M., Cuijpers, P. and Aker, T., 2015. EMDR for Syrian refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: Results of a pilot randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 6(1), p.27414.

Bansak, K., Hainmueller, J. and Hangartner, D., 2016. How economic, humanitarian, and religious concerns shape European attitudes toward asylum seekers. Science, p.aag2147.

Blanchet, K., Fouad, F.M. and Pherali, T., 2016. Syrian refugees in Lebanon: the search for universal health coverage. Conflict and health, 10(1), p.12.

Chatelard, G., 2016. Iraqi and Syrian refugees in Jordan adjusting to displacement: Comparing their expectations towards UNHCR and their capacities to use their educational assets. Middle East Centre Blog.

Cookson, S.T., Abaza, H., Clarke, K.R., Burton, A., Sabrah, N.A., Rumman, K.A., Odeh, N. and Naoum, M., 2015. Impact of and response to increased tuberculosis prevalence among Syrian refugees compared with Jordanian tuberculosis prevalence: case study of a tuberculosis public health strategy. Conflict and health, 9(1), p.18.

Doocy, S., Lyles, E., Roberton, T., Akhu-Zaheya, L., Oweis, A. and Burnham, G., 2015. Prevalence and care-seeking for chronic diseases among Syrian refugees in Jordan. BMC Public Health, 15(1), p.1097.

Georgakopoulou, T., Mandilara, G., Mellou, K., Tryfinopoulou, K., Chrisostomou, A., Lillakou, H., Hadjichristodoulou, C. and Vatopoulos, A., 2016. Resistant Shigella strains in refugees, August–October 2015, Greece. Epidemiology & Infection, 144(11), pp.2415-2419.

Hainmueller, J., Hangartner, D. and Lawrence, D., 2016. When lives are put on hold: Lengthy asylum processes decrease employment among refugees. Science advances, 2(8), p.e1600432.

Hatton, T.J., 2016. Refugees, asylum seekers, and policy in OECD countries. American Economic Review, 106(5), pp.441-45.

Hoffstaedter, G., 2015. Urban refugees and the UNHCR in Kuala Lumpur: Dependency, assistance and survival.

?çduygu, A. and Millet, E., 2016. Syrian refugees in Turkey: Insecure lives in and environment of pseudo-integration. Istituto affari internazionali.

Jacobsen, K.L., 2015. Experimentation in humanitarian locations: UNHCR and biometric registration of Afghan refugees. Security Dialogue, 46(2), pp.144-164.

Langlois, E.V., Haines, A., Tomson, G. and Ghaffar, A., 2016. Refugees: towards better access to health-care services. Lancet (London, England), 387(10016), p.319.

Mellou, K., Chrisostomou, A., Sideroglou, T., Georgakopoulou, T., Kyritsi, M., Hadjichristodoulou, C. and Tsiodras, S., 2017. Hepatitis A among refugees, asylum seekers and migrants living in hosting facilities, Greece, April to December 2016. Eurosurveillance, 22(4).

Phillips, M., 2016, January. Refugees and Migrants at Sea: Another View from the Middle East and North Africa Region. In Proceedings of the ASIL Annual Meeting (Vol. 110, pp. 169-173). Cambridge University Press.

UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), UNHCR's Commitments to Refugee Women, 12 December 2001, available at: https://www.refworld.org/docid/479f3b2a2.html [accessed 30 May 2018]

Williams, B., Cassar, C., Siggers, G. and Taylor, S., 2016. Medical and social issues of child refugees in Europe. Archives of disease in childhood, pp.archdischild-2016.

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