Discuss about the United State Humanitarian Assistance And Disaster.
The definition of the term ‘humanitarian intervention’ has been a source of controversy for quite some time. Some people argue that it is entirely the use of military force by a state against another state to bring to an end, activities that violate human rights (O’Hagan, 2016).
From my point of view, therefore, this kind of intervention happens when a country takes any action (military or non-military) within the borders of another state, to stop large-scale human suffering. Better still, one can choose to define this term as they please, depending on the context within which it is used, whether political, ethical or judicial (Davies, 2017). Nevertheless, it is undoubtedly true that the intentions of taking humanitarian actions are usually noble and valid.
Australia was revealed to have given fifty-eight point five million dollars in compassionate help to Myanmar between July 2014 and July 2017 (around thirty-three percent of the aggregate respective guide spending plan). Australia is presently the eighth biggest helpful giver to Myanmar. More than 70% of this aggregate (forty-one point seven six million dollars) has been dispensed to reacting to advancing circumstances of inter-communal strain and furnished clash in Myanmar, basically influencing Shan, Kachin and Rakhine states, described as extended emergencies. Australia's help has developed in the course of recent years to suit this move from here and now quick alleviation to longer-term philanthropic programming.
This documentation is a review of a report made on humanitarian interventions in Myanmar, conducted by the Australian Department of Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. The evaluation took place between 1st July 2014 and 30th June 2017 (Beyrer, & Kamarulzaman, 2017). This report will examine, among other things, the rationale behind this evaluation and the methodologies used to accomplish it. It will also reveal the principles and values applied and the validity of the data collected during the assessment. Furthermore, the criteria used and the whether the reported evaluation was based on evidence will be determined.
Purpose and rationale
According to the report, the primary objective was to assess the effectiveness, efficiency, and appropriateness of the humanitarian investments of Australia within the stipulated scope (Chen, 2017).
Relevance and appropriateness
Relevance and propriety are correlative criteria used to assess a mediation's destinations and more extensive objective. As we found out concerning relevance,s the interventions evaluated were best suited to the priorities of the target population, in this case trhe people of Myanmar. The approaches used to address the needs identified in affected areas in Myanmar were also quite relevant. As for appropriateness, the interventions contributed greatly to ownership, cost effectiveness and accountability.
Efficiency measures the degree to outcomes have been conveyed at all exorbitant ways conceivable. According to the evaluation report, the inputs were used to accomplish activities that were converted to results. The results and benefits of the evaluation were well within the constraints of the estimated costs. Now, according to the IFRC framework, efficiency is supposed to be in light of a mediation's expressed goals and the procedures by which they were sought after, breaking down the yields in connection to the sources of info and their separate markers. It incorporates whether the outcomes or advantages legitimize the cost, and can contrast elective methodologies with accomplishing similar outcomes to decide if the most effective procedures have been received. It is firmly identified with viability and the estimation of execution.
Effectiveness measures the degree to which an intercession has or is probably going to accomplish its expected, prompt outcomes.the evaluation is said to have been timely and coordinated. It took care of all the trade offs and ensured that perspectives of the stakeholders were taken into account.
Coverage alludes to the degree by which populace bunches are incorporated into or prohibited from a mediation, and the differential effect on these gatherings. This evaluation is reported to have been very inclusive and extensive. Evaluaton was done at different locations and with different people of many divergent characteristics.
The evaluation sought to know the levels of accuracy and relevance of Australia’s humanitarian assistance with regards to protracted crises in Myanmar, and other places in general. Finally, the evaluation was conducted with the intention of finding out if the local or national leadership, or both, were affected by Australia’s humanitarian activities; was the leadership in either case reinforced or undermined (Capie, 2015)? The evaluators derive their evaluation questions from the chief strategy and policy document of Australia as well as from international models and frameworks.
The main approach used for this process was qualitative. Stakeholders were interviewed, desk reviews conducted and discussions held in focus groups (Blake et al., 2017). The researchers also made short field trips to the affected areas to experience firsthand what the affected populations were going through. As many as one hundred and thirteen documents were analyzed in the desk reviews (Boswell, 2015). The stakeholder interviews, too, were extensive and exhaustive, involving more than sixty persons including seven representatives of the Myanmar government. In the case of discussions held by focus groups, they were grouped by gender and asked to debate and share their views on whether the assistance given by the Australian government was appropriate (Chen, 2017). The discussions were carried out in the internally displaced camps. Everybody was represented; men (majority representatives), women, children, and even the disabled, who were represented by seven individuals.
The evaluators took care not to perform any activity without the consent of the participants. Where there was the need to take pictures and videos, the affected persons were asked to give written consent (Watkins, 2017). Those with hearing and vision impairments were communicated to using translators who were part of the research team. Everything was done according to standard state laws and regulations.
Values and principles
All the activities that were conducted were done with strict adherence to the evaluators’ core values of integrity and honesty (Shein, & Connell, 2016). According to one of the people involved in the evaluation process, one of the principles that drive them is empathy. Before they do anything, they first put themselves in the shoes of the victim and relate their experience to their own. They thrive on the principle that they want people always to be happy and recover from natural pandemics like earthquakes and tsunamis (Thayer, 2016).
The evaluation took approximately three months, and the following is a list of the data that was collected.
- The number of people in the camps of internally displaced persons
- The specific occurrence that forced the evaluated victims to flee their homes and become part of the camp
- The age bracket of people worst affected by the particular occurrence that led them to that particular camp
- The health issues affecting the people in the camps, for example, the most common disease or illness most people were complaining about
- The quality of food, security and other essential elements of living in the camps
- Were they receiving sufficient support from the government?
- The victims’ opinions on the quality of aid the Australian government was providing them with and if it was sufficient.
- The government representatives were asked what efforts they were putting into ensuring that the victims receiving humanitarian aid were resettled
- What was the government doing to ensure that as few people as possible were affected in case of occurrence of a similar or related epidemic?
As it turns out, all the above relevant were quite relevant concerning the objectives of the evaluation (Pedersen, & Kinley, 2016). For instance, knowing the age bracket of people most affected in a refugee camp would assist them to know what resources to focus on most the next time they were doing supply rounds. Taking the victims' opinions on the quality of aid they were receiving from the Australian government humanitarian body is vital in knowing where they ought to improve, or what they need to desist from if any (Marchi, 2016).
The Australian government estimates that approximately twenty-two percent of the funds it gave to Myanmar in the scope of the evaluation was wired to national organizations. This has given Australia, an international partner, the courage to make significant progress towards supporting national partners in their practices. What happens is that it may send humanitarian funds to other national organizations, who then distribute it to the displacement of persons through local organizations.
The role of NGOs in the evaluation
The examination of a philanthropic emergency in Myanmar is directed without reference to cases of different nations. Any intercession for compassionate reasons for existing is advocated in itself by the seriousness of a given circumstance in the separate district. Selectivity in the decision of a people in want isn't just wrong but on the other hand isn't allowable in the soul of universal human rights law.
Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) were more of a subject of study in this evaluation than participants. The report does not reveal any NGO that took a direct interest in any significant part of this evaluation exercise (Simon, 2018). But some information was found out concerning the role of these NGOs in humanitarian intervention. It was revealed that most of them, and the United Nations, do not consider much the people with disabilities when giving humanitarian aid. Most of their work is on humanitarian mine action. Fortunately, though, there has been a growing focus by partners like DR Congo to include people with disabilities in their analyses. Programs are being designed that will assist in identifying people with different types of handicaps in displacement camps and address the issues affecting them (Brittain et al., 2016). The Australian government also, in some cases, provides aid indirectly through NGOs and the United Nations.
Criteria for evaluation of actions and achievements
The primary criteria used to assess the impact of actions of the organization and their accomplishments were comparative analysis. The organization compared their current status regarding the management of crises in Myanmar to their past successes (Martin, 2016). This way they identified where they had made progress and where they had slackened their advance. The information gathered from the displacement camps was very useful in accomplishing this assignment. All the data, as the report says, were analyzed using statistical tools of data analysis (Heintze, 2016). It is the hope of masterminds of this evaluation that the outcome of the evaluation will help them make further strides in the mitigation of problems of humanitarian intervention.
Looking at the criteria and methodologies that were used by this organization in conducting this evaluation, there is not much difference in the approach they used compared to that recommended by the IFRC (International Federation Red Cross) and the RCS (Red Crescent Societies) framework (McCarthy, 2017). In fact, looking at the two approaches, DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) applied the exact approach put forward by IFRC. For the sake of this report, that is, therefore, not much of a concern.
As per the definition of an evaluation by the IFRC, the evaluation was a systematic and objective assessment of a completed project, itd design, its implementation process and the results. Its aim was to ascertain the relevance of objectives and their fulfillment, the efficiency of development, sustainability, effectiveness and impact. The evaluation provided credible and useful information, which allowed for the incorporation of the lessons learned into the decision making process of both donors and recipients.
The evaluation reported here also serves the same purpose as those stipulated in the IFRC framework. First it is intended to improve the work of Australian humanitarian body and their ultimate vision of helping those who are in need. It will also help in expanding the organizational knowledge by forming a basis for the organizational staff to manage and deliver their programs and services better each day. It was meant to uphold the transparency and accountability of the organization, as well as giving the participants a chance to celebrate and promote their work. This evaluation was conducted, as the framework of the IFRC requires, by evaluators who were not part of the implementation team. It was, therefore, done with a certain degree of technical expertise and objectivity. With regards to timing, the evaluation took the summative approach in which it is done after implementation to assess impact and effectiveness. Also, the evaluation reported was, with regards to the IRFC framework, an impact evaluation. This is because one of the objectives was to find out how much the Australian government has impacted the lives of dozens of thousands of people in need.
The execution of the state of wellbeing by the legislature of Myanmar is poor, and the country is positioned second toward the end of a national examination by the World Health Organization. Generally ranked number forty-six, sustenance security does not exist in the nation; three out of ten kids younger than three years are said to experience the ill effects of malnutrition, and one of every ten is seriously malnourished.
Contrary to expectation, the issue of health was found not to be of much concern to the government to of Australia about the provision of humanitarian assistance in Myanmar (O'Brien, 2016). However, it continues to chip into that sector through the provision of funds to national bodies like the Myanmar Humanitarian Fund (Carr, 2018). The health sector is already taken care of by other organization and donors who have their bases in the region.
Were the findings appropriate?
After going through the evaluation report profoundly and considerately, it became clear that the findings were entirely appropriate (Wilson, 2016). Although there were a few flaws and limitations here and there, the evaluation was generally extensive, and we can say that the results were all accurate and. None of the evaluation findings were faked or doctored in any way. Every detail t5hat was captured in the report was based on evidence collected from research (Easton, 2015).
The following are a few of the suggestions that were brought forward after completion of the evaluation. Notably, all the recommendations made here were done based strictly on the findings of the evaluation and are intended to improve everything that is not in good shape about the provision humanitarian aid by the Australian government. Readers ought to also to note that, says the report, these recommendations were arrived at after careful consultation and collection of the opinions of all the stakeholders who took part in this exercise.
One of the findings noted that the geographic spread of Australian help had adjusted intently to the necessities delineated in the UN and accomplices Humanitarian Response Plan. Executing accomplices welcome Australia's way to deal with unmarked subsidizing portions that enable them to target help properly and in an adaptable way as indicated by recognized and developing needs. Australia has given philanthropic help over a few segments; interests in 2016 traverse four areas and six accomplices. More focus on interests in fewer segments would mean that+ fewer accomplices would empower Australia to play a more grounded position of authority and work all the more intimately with accomplices to guarantee programs are as viable as could be expected under the circumstances. There is additional scope for Australia to investigate creative approaches to work with accomplices, for example, joint multiyear arranging, and aggressive or boosted multiyear subsidizing. Proposals outlined in this report catch the significance of building up a multi-year philanthropic procedure that can manage progressing choices in connection to segment center, actualizing accomplice decisions and arrangement of helpful help with the more extensive advancement and place interests in Myanmar.
As I also found out from the evaluation report, checking, assessment, and learning forms are by and large solid. However, they do fluctuate crosswise and over executing accomplices in process and substance. Therefore, the undertaking reports educated by these procedures contain distinctive data that can't, without much of a stretch, be contrasted or arranged to catch the aggregate results or effect.
By and large, information isn't disaggregated by sex, age, handicap or other statistic qualities. DFAT's Humanitarian Strategy recognizes assurance, inability incorporation, sexual orientation value and ladies' strengthening, and observing, assessment and learning (MEAL) as topical needs 'integral to the adequacy of all Australian help. The Australian philanthropic program in Myanmar has expanded its emphasis on sex value and insurance in the previous two years by subsidizing key security accomplices. This has had the positive effect of contributing solidly to the security and poise of ladies, men, young men and young ladies over a few states in Myanmar. Past committed subsidizing to high-performing accomplices, insurance, sexual orientation balance, and inability consideration are not reliably mainstreamed crosswise over Australian helpful interests in Myanmar.
Help from the government of Australia has bolstered national government needs and gave subsidies to national associations, through the Myanmar Humanitarian Fund (MHF) and other partners who help in the implementation. Around twenty-two percent of Australian assistance has been customized through national associations.
Notwithstanding expanding on accomplishments, there are regions for potential change in Australia's help to extended emergencies in Myanmar. These fall into three general classifications: key concentration, approach needs and national and nearby authority.
As we can see, Australia's philanthropic help with Myanmar has accomplished an awesome arrangement crosswise over sectorial zones since July 2014. Strikingly, help has added to coming to up to five hundred thousand individuals who need help every year. A large portion of the discoveries of this assessment identifies with sections of quality performance in Australia's compassionate help that ought to be perceived and improved in the years to come.
From the specifics of the evaluation, as we have seen in this review, we can correctly conclude that the evaluation was done with a lot of insight and expertise. The objectives of the entire process were duly met, and the findings are true and reliable. Hopefully, the findings reported will be used efficiently to make more improvements in the sector humanitarian intervention, and Australia will continue to help make the world a better place to be.
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