Describe about the Report for Universal Healthcare of Risk and Enhancing the Health Outcome.
This assignment aims to conduct a research on the concept of universal health coverage. The country, which has been selected, is Singapore. Universal healthcare, which is also known as universal health coverage, involves a system of healthcare that provides healthcare as well financial protection to all the individuals of a particular country (Tan et al., 2014). It is concerned to offer a specific package of advantages to all the society members with the goal to provide an improved access to the services of healthcare, providing protection against financial risk and enhancing the health outcomes of all the individuals (Boerma et al., 2014). The assignment will describe and explain the health system over the last ten years of Singapore and will highlight the financial model to ensure effective healthcare systems. It will provide the examples of the policy that are related with the universal health coverage. In addition, it will also identify the principles that have adopted for ensuring effective health systems and the role played by the government of Singapore.
The overview of the healthcare provisions over the last ten years
In Singapore, healthcare is primarily a concern of Singapore Government’s Ministry of Health. This country possesses a well-organized and widespread healthcare system. It has been ranked sixth in the world ranking of the health systems in 2000 and in the year 2014, Bloomberg has ranked it as the first most proficient healthcare system in the world (Haseltine, 2013). It has made a significant progress over the last ten years and is continuing to work in and efficient manner to provide the services of healthcare, which are accessible, affordable and of excellent quality. Over the last ten years, the capacity of healthcare has expanded in all the sectors. It has transformed itself from a country with poor outcomes of health to one of excellent in the world (McKee et al., 2013).
The Centre for Strategic futures (CSF), Singapore, has contributed much in the healthcare sector and it has an association with the Ministry of Health for discussing the the planning of healthcare in the future (Blank & Burau, 2013). In the year 2000, the Office of the prime minister of this country had identified the rapid developments in the system of information and technology. In addition, innovative dashboards to monitor the universal health coverage has also been developed, in which infographics and certain tools for visualization for tracking the progress towards the strategies, policies and priorities that are specific to this country (Guinto et al., 2015).
The Ministry of Health of Singapore is also combining care across the system of healthcare, with six regional clusters of healthcare (Boerma et al., 2014). For foreseeing and avoiding the problems in future, the Government in the year 1983 has promoted a Natioanl Health Plan. It has highlighted the plan for infrastructure for the next twenty years (Ha, 2016). In the year 1985, the reorganizing of public hospices began to combine the business and fiscal disciplines into the services of healthcare with and intention to provide the services of a higher quality and providing financial assistance in an efficient manner to all the citizens of Singapore. National healthcare expenditure had been maintained at the level of three percent GDP during the period from 1980 to to 1990. Since the years from 1967 to 1995, there has been a progressive increase in the dollar term. In the year, 2002, the government with an intention to assist the elderly and the severe disabled individuals particularly had carried out the promulgation of the ElderShield Plan (Van Minh et al., 2014).
Singapore’s Healthcare system philosophy comprise of three pillars (Bitran, 2014). Initially, this country intended to develop a healthy populace with prevention of healthcare and to promote healthy living standards (Boerma et al., 2014). Secondly, this country also underlines the individual accountability towards the healthy living standard through “3M” (Medisave, Medishield and Medifund) system. Finally yet importantly, the government of this country has to keep the expenditure of healthcare down by controlling the area of supply of the services of healthcare as well as provide heavy subvention at the institutions that deals with public healthcare (Holmes, 2012).
Source: (Boerma et al., 2014).
The principles to ensure the effectiveness of health systems
Singapore has transformed its healthcare system in an effective manner (Savedoff, 2012). Its healthcare system has been reorganized for encouraging integrated care of health across all the services of healthcare as well as between the systems of social service and healthcare. Healthcare’s infrastructure in this country in comparison to the most of the countries is subjected to extensive governmental planning by means of regulation of professionals of healthcare, levers of land release and differential funding by the private and the public sector providers (Sen, 2015). This country serves as the region of medical and healthcare centre and hub for the excellence of healthcare, providing supreme system of healthcare delivery and the facilities to all the individuals living in this country together with the global patient market (Hsu & Lee, 2013). It serves as a platform for medical technology and delivery of healthcare and provides a significant opportunity to the regional ASEAN economies (Blank & Burau, 2013). In addition, it is pursuing three prime strategies of healthcare, which are enhancing the long-term care, clinical research and offering care that is more sophisticated (Crisp & Chen, 2014).
The Ministry of Health (MOH), which is the presiding healthcare body of the government of Singapore, formulates the programs and policies to develop and regulate the products of healthcare as well as the services (Blank & Burau, 2013). The Health Sciences Authority (HSA), being a statutory board of the Ministry of Health serves to safeguard and enhance nationwide health as well as safety. This country offers premium healthcare services for the populaces in comparison to the other developed countries (Blank & Burau, 2013).
The goal of this nation is to expedite healthcare sector transformation through the systems of infocomm-enabled delivery, cost-effective services and focusing on the accomplishment of enhanced quality care, an enhanced capability of the public for managing their health together with research of health services (Van Minh et al., 2014). Universal health coverage is offered by the subsidies of the government which are financed through tax and are available for all the citizens of this country at government polyclinics and public hospices (Van Minh et al., 2014). Co-payments are distinguished through income and choice of wards having diverse facilities. Medisave has taken the form of second level of safety and is a scheme for compulsory medical savings account for all the Singaporeans and this scheme can be drawn for paying their share of medical treatment (Guinto et al., 2015). It also serves to facilitate the families for saving up for paying their needs of healthcare in the future and a huge part of which will turn up in years after retirement (Savedoff, 2012). Another support which is offered by the national basic insurance schemes is MediShield. The Singaporeans pay the premiums of MediShield risk-pools for providing protection from the medical bills (Bitran, 2014).
In addition, this country also provides an endowment fund known as Medifund that offers the best protection for ensuring that none of the individuals in Singapore is deprived of basic healthcare due to their poor financial status (Crisp & Chen, 2014). It not only helps the individuals having incomes but also to the individuals who have a good income but get large bills in comparison to their earning (Mossialos et al., 2015).
Source: (Savedoff, 2012).
The role played by the government
The government of Singapore merges the perception of individual responsibility as well as control of the government by means of a financing system of the subsidies of government for hospital services, primary health care and pharmaceuticals together with the personal savings accounts (Blank & Burau, 2013). Besides the general taxation revenue pool which is collected by the Singapore Government. This country has a Central Provident Fund (CPF). The employers and the individuals contribute to three accounts every month (Van Minh et al., 2014). The first account is an ordinary account which is concerned with the savings for buying home, investing in education and insurance (Bitran, 2014). The second account is a special account, which is concerned with the savings for retirement (Crisp & Chen, 2014). The government of this country plays an active role to regulate the supply and expenditures of the services of healthcare (Mossialos et al., 2015). The government has made immense efforts for improving the healthcare system. One of the most significant beliefs of the government of Singapore is that social harmony is required by a strong society. The government of this country has built a system that encourages a sense of impartiality and welfare through the economic opportunity as well as the delivery of societal services (Savedoff, 2012).
The government had established the Central provident fund (CPF) in which the individuals keep 5% of their income into the account and their employer matches it. The money that gets accumulated could be withdrawn at the age of fifty five (Crisp & Chen, 2014). The CPF has turned to be one of the essential elements which support societal constancy (Holmes, 2012). Singapore’s government possesses vision of a long-range for increasing the utilization of the Fund in due course of time and expanded it for allowing the individuals form saving and paying for healthcare and education as well as buying of home and retirement (Crisp & Chen, 2014).There has been a rise in the obligatory contribution rates have raised over the years and at present it stands at sixteen percent of income for the employers, while for the employees, it is twenty percent. After crossing the age of fifty, the rates get reduced (Blank & Burau, 2013).
The contribution of Central Provident Fund for the feasibility of the healthcare system cannot be exaggerated (Mossialos et al., 2015). It assists to control the expenditures by encouraging the patients to have sense of responsibility regarding their expenses, after all, the money is possessed by them for saving or spending and it assists making the care accessible as well as inexpensive for all the citizens of this country (Savedoff, 2012).Ultimately, though it has recognized by the government that the savings of healthcare program would not be adequate for supporting care. In addition, the other systems had been put in place, together with a program of medical insurance as well as a societal safety net (Sen, 2015).
Source: (Mossialos et al., 2015).
In addition, the government of Singapore has taken significant steps for improving the health of the individuals living in Singapore (Mossialos et al., 2015). An early move intended to bring the services associated with primary care to nearer to the individuals through the development of a network of maternal and child health clinics and outpatient dispensaries (Hsu & Lee, 2013).
In the end, it can be concluded that Singapore has accomplished one of the most efficient systems with respect to the delivery of exceptional healthcare services together with the effectiveness as well as success. All these have been attained through the mutual responsibilities among the employers, individuals and the government. It is undeniable that the government of Singapore has made enormous efforts for improving the healthcare system. An active role has been performed by the government for regulating the expenditure as well as prices of the service of healthcare. This country serves as the region of medical and healthcare centre and centre for the healthcare excellence, providing ultimate system of healthcare delivery and the facilities to all the individuals living in this country together with the universal patient market. It has made a remarkable progress over the last ten years and is progressing to work in a well-organized manner to provide the services of healthcare, which are within reach, reasonable and of excellent quality. It has transformed itself from a nation having poor outcomes of health to one of outstanding healthcare systems globally. Overall, the government of Singapore is very proactive in terms of implementing the policies for maintaining the standards of healthcare in comparison to the other developed countries in an efficient manner.
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