$20 Bonus + 25% OFF
Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!


Write a report about the Urinalysis Lab.



The act of physical, chemical and microscopic examination of urine is known as Urinalysis. Urinalysis is a major part of measuring the kidney profile, diagnosing patients with Renal disorders, diabetes, urinary tract infection and in forensics, though only theoretically (The forensics Library, n.d.).

Physical examination of urine includes test like volume, odour and appearance. Appearance of urine can be further categorized into colour, turbidity, specific gravity and osmolality.

Normal urine odour is not very string. At times, due to the high specimen concentration, urine might smell strong but it is not necessarily infected though it might indicate an underlying medical condition. Infected urine has a more pungent and unusual smell due to various reasons such as dehydration, urinary tract infection and Diabetes. Some other uncommon urine disorders include bladder fistula, liver disease, Phenylketonuria, Maple syrup urine disease (Kivi, n.d.). Alkaline fermentation causes an ammoniac smell due to urea splitting bacterial infection. Patients with diabetes Ketoacidosis produce a urine that may have a sweet or fruity odour while liver disorders and other metabolic disorders cause a musty smelling urine.

Colour of a urine sample varies with its concentration and is in the range from colourless to deep yellow. Urine colours other than this (such as orange or red) indicate metabolic disorders.

Urine sample should be cleanly collected midstream and collected in a clean sterile container. It is preferable that urine sample is tested when still fresh since standing urine is susceptible to change in nature.

Chemical tests that can be performed using a urine sample include pH, protein, glucose, ketones, blood, bilirubin, nitrites, etc.

pH of the urine is determined by using pH dipsticks which are pre-treated with reagents which undergo specific reactions upon addition of protein to them and change colour accordingly. Neutral pH is the normal urine pH. However, in cases of disorders such as diabetic ketoacidosis, pH can be low while urinary tract infection leads to an increased urine pH.

In case a spillage of urine sample occurs, one should sweep up the spilled liquid using mask and protective gear, as needed. One the sweeping is done; the collected waste should be placed in a yellow bin.  



To establish a control sample, a trial run was done of all the tests.

Test 1: Colour, Odour, Clarity

20 mL of control urine was measured out using a 50 mL graduated cylinder. The control sample was then placed inside a beaker. After careful observation of the control sample, colour, odour and clarity data were recorded in the table.

Test 2: Protein

2 urine samples of 10 mL each in 2 test tubes were prepared with the help of graduated cylinder. One test tube was heated in a hot water bath to a temperature of 70°C and the other was left at the room temperature. Test tube 1 was removed from the hot water bath after a few minutes and the results were compared and recorded for the two test tubes.

Test 3: pH

A drop of the urine sample was placed on a piece of universal indicator paper using a medicine dropper. After 30 seconds, the pH value was determined by comparing the colour of the paper against the colour chart. The observations were recorded.

Test 4: Glucose

1 glucose test strip was dipped into the urine sample (unheated) and immediately taken out. After a wait of 10 seconds, the colour was matched with colour chart. The observations were recorded.  



  1. urine samples of the suspects
  2. 50 mL graduated cylinder
  3. 100 ml beaker
  4. 1 test tube rack
  5. 5 test tubes
  6. hot water bath
  7. thermometer
  8. 1 dropper
  9. universal indicator paper with colour charts
  10. glucose test strips with colour charts


Table 1: Result of urinalysis of 4 suspects, the sample and control


Control Tests

Crime Scene

Suspect 1

Suspect 2

Suspect 3

Suspect 4


Dark Yellow


Light Yellow

Light Yellow

Dark Yellow






































The results clearly indicate that the suspect 4 has committed the crime. This can be said with decent surety because the characteristics of the suspect 4’s urine sample are quite similar to that of the crime scene sample. Both the samples had glucose in their urine, there was observed a presence of protein in both the samples and the same pH value was recorded in both the samples which signifies that there is a high chance that suspect 4 is the criminal.

It is also suspected that the suspect 4 might have diabetes due to the presence of significant amount of glucose in his urine sample.

Fairly odourless, colourless, clear and a neutral pH are the characteristic indicators of a healthy urine sample. However, different values for all these tests in different suspects show that they all suffer from one or the other metabolic condition which deviates their urine from normal condition.

For example, a pH of 4 in suspect 1 shows that the suspect suffers from a disease that is decreasing the pH of suspect’s urine to a great extent such as acidosis. Similarly, pH 7 in suspect 2 shows the alkalinity of the pH which might be due to early stages of an alkalinity producing disease such as urinary tract infection.

However, to be a 100% sure about the identity of the criminal, it is advisable that DNA analysis and blood tests are done. DNA profiling can help establish the identity of criminal with a high surety level however, it is very difficult to extract DNA from a urine sample due to high level of dilution and high chances of contamination.

Urinalysis is also applied in case of recent drug use detection. Though effective, testing foe drug presence in urine does not ensure that all instances of drug use will be identified. Also, urinalysis cannot determine the time of drug use or the amount in which drug was consumed (MacPherson, 2001). Contamination as well as dilution of urine sample might lead to misleading results and should be avoided.

Further, drug molecules of small size are easily excreted through the ureter after glomerular filtration. However, Plasma protein bund drugs and large drugs like heparin are not so easily excreted or filtered by glomerular apparatus (Rolfe, 2005).

The condition wherein the part of kidney responsible for blood filtration is damaged is known as glomerulonephritis. It is also known as Nephritis or Nephrotic Syndrome. This part of kidney is known as Glomeruli. Here the kidney is damaged so that it can no longer get rid of waste or excess fluid. Prolonged and untreated nephritis may lead to renal failure.

A number of symptoms of nephritis include infrequent urination, blood in urine (haematuria), protein in urine (proteinuria), oedema, etc.

There are two types of glomerulonephritis – Acute and Chronic. While the acute glomerulonephritis is caused by infections such as strep throat, the actual causes of chronic glomerulonephritis are still unknown.

The disease affects the kidney’s ability to filter blood cells and protein from blood. It can lead to high blood pressure because it reduces kidney function and may influence the way kidney handles sodium. It can be detected by its sign and symptoms usually. However, at times, a kidney biopsy might be necessary.

Concluding, there is a high chance that suspect 4 is the actual criminal.  Based on table 4, the similarities between the urine sample at crime scene and suspect 4 are quite high. Both the urine samples are yellow in colour, both are clear in appearance, and have a pH value of 7 which means the urine is neutral. Glucose level for both the urines is the same as well where the result is 0.75 which means this criminal might have a diabetes mellitus. In addition, Suspect 1, 2 and 3 have a different result from the crime scene which also proves that they did not commit the crime. Lastly, the error from this investigation is while testing presence of protein in the urine. 



  1. Trent, C. E., Gerards, S., Gibbons, K., McCallum, S., Noble, R., Parrington, J., et al. (2011). Biology 12. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
  2. Chakraborty, S. (2013). Urinalysis in clinical practice (The Association of Physicians of India). India: Jaypee brothers medical publishers. 
  3. Hindmarch, I., ElSohly, M., Gambles J., & Salamone, S. (2001). Forensic urinalysis of drug use in cases of allegated sexual assaults. Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine, 8(4), 197-205.
  4. MacPherson, P. (2001). ‘Random Urinalysis Program: Policy, practice, and research results’, Forum on Corrections Research Focusing on Alcohol and Drugs, 13(3), 54-57.
  5. Vorvick, L. J. (2015). Urinalysis. 
  6. The forensics Library. (n.d.). DNA Analysis. 
  7. Rolfe, V. (2005). RLO: The Kidneys and Drug Excretion..
  8. Kivi, R. (n.d.), what causes abnormal urine odor? 5 possible conditions.
Download Sample

Get 100% money back after download, simply upload your unique content* of similar no. of pages or more. We verify your content and once successfully verified 100% value credited to your wallet within 7 days.

Upload Unique Document

Document Under Evaluation

Get Credits into Your Wallet

*The content must not be available online or in our existing Database to qualify as unique.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2017). Urinalysis Lab Analysis. Retrieved from

"Urinalysis Lab Analysis." My Assignment Help, 2017,

My Assignment Help (2017) Urinalysis Lab Analysis [Online]. Available from:
[Accessed 05 August 2020].

My Assignment Help. 'Urinalysis Lab Analysis' (My Assignment Help, 2017) <> accessed 05 August 2020.

My Assignment Help. Urinalysis Lab Analysis [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2017 [cited 05 August 2020]. Available from:

At, we are committed to deliver quality assignment assistance in the fastest way possible. To make our service delivery fast, we have hired subject matter experts to work on different subject specific assignments. We have hired experts who owe in-depth knowledge in their respective subjects. As per their expertise, they provide geography assignment help, Physics assignment help, Strategic assignment help, history assignment help, art architecture assignment help and assistance with other subjects as well.

Latest Biology Samples

PSY251 Biological Bases Of Behaviour

Download : 0 | Pages : 10
  • Course Code: PSY251
  • University: Murdoch University
  • Country: Australia

Answer: Connotation of Stress on Cortisol and Memory Retrieval in Healthy Young Students Introduction In this study the researcher was interested in the effects of stress on cognitive function, focusing especially on memory performance. Previous literature has shown that prolonged tension in humans can have high cortisol levels by activating the “hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal” (HPA) axis (Aguilera, 2011). Gupta, &...

Read More arrow Tags: Singapore 18 PSY251 Other 

BC6002 Advanced Blood Science

Download : 0 | Pages : 3
  • Course Code: BC6002
  • University: London Metropolitan University
  • Country: United Kingdom

Answer: 1. As per the case study, a 16 year old girl was being admitted to the hospital after she faced an argument in her house. The nurse noted that the patient was hyperventilating and had a dilated pupil. The nurse also noted that the patient had negative values of glucose and ketone in the urine highlighted the fact that the patient might not be diabetic. The lab reports showed that the patient had bicarbonate level of 16 mmol/L (Adeva-A...

Read More arrow Tags: United Kingdom Dalston Biology Advanced blood science London Metropolitan University 

NPS60001 Research Skills

Download : 0 | Pages : 7

Answer: Comparative Study Of Tools For The Production Escherichia Coli Colonization Background Literature Review The shape of Escherichia organisms are rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacilli which commonly live in the large intestine and they are excreted in faeces. The urinary tract is majorly the site of E. coli infection. There are several diseases which are brought as a result of E. coli such as urinary tract infections, meningitis, bl...

Read More arrow Tags: Australia 11 Research Skills Swinburne University of Technology 

BIO122 Environmental Biology

Download : 0 | Pages : 5
  • University: ECPI University
  • Country: United States

Answer: Introduction According to reports by different researche, climate change tends to affect regions through both direct and indirect impacts. However, Reports from previous studies shows that various regions will face challenges differently as per climate change is concerned according to their weather. Region background North America is ranked as the third-largest continent in the world with an approximate population of 515 million peo...

Read More arrow

LA106 Sex And Gender

Download : 1 | Pages : 3
  • Course Code: LA106
  • University: Monroe College
  • Country: United States

Answer: A research indicates that self-esteem shows differences in the way people behave. From the observation, it is evident that people do not tend to follow traditional expectations for nonverbal communication for their gender when presenting themselves to others. This is happening because of the following reasons; everyone in the society regardless of ones level of self-esteem, one will be able to associate himself with the traits that are g...

Read More arrow

Save Time & improve Grade

Just share Requriment and get customize Solution.

We will use e-mail only for:

arrow Communication regarding your orders

arrow To send you invoices, and other billing info

arrow To provide you with information of offers and other benefits




Overall Rating



Our Amazing Features


On Time Delivery

Our writers make sure that all orders are submitted, prior to the deadline.


Plagiarism Free Work

Using reliable plagiarism detection software, only provide customized 100 percent original papers.


24 X 7 Live Help

Feel free to contact our assignment writing services any time via phone, email or live chat.


Services For All Subjects

Our writers can provide you professional writing assistance on any subject at any level.


Best Price Guarantee

Our best price guarantee ensures that the features we offer cannot be matched by any of the competitors.

Our Experts

Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

93 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Jackson Mitchell

MiM (Masters in Management) in Supply Chain Management

New Jersey, United States

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

752 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Hugh Cleave

Masters in Human Resource Management (MMgt, HRM)

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 4/5

1309 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Gemmie Chen

MSc in Nursing

Singapore, Singapore

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

265 Order Completed

97% Response Time

Ken Campbell

MSc in Electrical Engineering

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me

FREE Tools


Plagiarism Checker

Get all your documents checked for plagiarism or duplicacy with us.


Essay Typer

Get different kinds of essays typed in minutes with clicks.


GPA Calculator

Calculate your semester grades and cumulative GPa with our GPA Calculator.


Chemical Equation Balancer

Balance any chemical equation in minutes just by entering the formula.


Word Counter & Page Calculator

Calculate the number of words and number of pages of all your academic documents.

Refer Just 5 Friends to Earn More than $2000

Check your estimated earning as per your ability




Your Approx Earning

Live Review

Our Mission Client Satisfaction

Awesome work. Awesome response time. Very thorough & clear. Love the results I get with MAH!


User Id: 383727 - 31 Jul 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Work was done in a timely manner took it through grammarly checked for plagiarism very well satisfied


User Id: 463334 - 31 Jul 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Great work for the short notice given. Thank you for never disappointing and helping out.


User Id: 194216 - 31 Jul 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

I received a full point on the assignment. Thank you for all the help with the assignment.


User Id: 411395 - 31 Jul 2020


student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating
callback request mobile
Have any Query?