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Question:

Discuss about the Vaccinations and It Benefits.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction

A vaccine is biological method of giving acquired immunity for any particular disease. It contains an agent that is just like the microorganism that caused disease which is usually made from the weak or already killed forms of microbe, or from its toxins or the its proteins that are on the surface. The agent is responsible for the stimulation of the immune system to make it identify the threat and destroy any microorganism that the body might encounter after the vaccination. Vaccines are of two types, one that is prophylactic and the other that is therapeutic, the prophylactic are those vaccines that prevent the future affects of any particular pathogen. The example of therapeutic vaccines can be cancer vaccines, which are being investigated. Rough The effectiveness of vaccines are studied and verified throughout the world, example, the vaccine for influenza, the vaccine for HPV and the chicken pox vaccine that s quite popular. (Shimizu et al., 2016).  There are certain benefits of vaccination of children, they are quick, safe and very effective. If vaccine is given to a child his body becomes capable of preventing the disease for which the vaccine has been given. If the child are not provided with vaccination there are chances that they might get infections and diseases that might be even fatal. So in order to protect the child vaccination is given. The most common vaccines that are given to the children are Chickenpox, Diptheria, tetanus and pertussis, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B, Influenza, Measles, mumps, rubella and Meningococal.

Thesis statement

Vaccinations are quick, safe and effective. Vaccination makes the body capable of fighting certain diseases.  There are certain side effects to vaccination. Certain vaccines have been removed from the market for their harmful effects.

Discussion

According to the reports of the World Health Organization, currently there are licensed vaccines to prevent 25 infections. Vaccination is hence the administration of vaccines, the term has been coined from Variolae vaccine, and a famous biologist Edward Jenner gave small pox of the cow, the term. He used the it in the year 1798 in the long title of his work “Inquiry into the Variolae Vaccine Known as the Cow Pox” in his work he described how the cow pox can be used against the small pox (White, 2014). There are certain benefits of vaccination of children; they are quick, safe and very effective. If vaccine is given to a child his body becomes capable of preventing the disease for which the vaccine has been given. If the child are not provided with vaccination there are chances that they might get infections and diseases that might be even fatal. So in order to protect the child vaccination is given. The most common vaccines that are given to the children are Chickenpox, Diptheria, tetanus and pertussis, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B, Influenza, Measles, mumps, rubella and Meningococal. There’s no doubt that history has shown the positive outcomes of immunization and continued to show them as the progress medical (Chervenak, McCullough&Brent,2016). In the twentieth century the scientific and technological innovations has increased which has led to the development (Chervenak, McCullough &Brent,2016).

Western medicine’s introduced the practice and said it had occurred around the eighteenth century, when a traveling British aristocrat, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, reported her findings through observations of Turkish children being injected with pus from smallpox victims. The practice was quite harsh because most of these children would get a mild version of the sickness. In return, these recipients would retain an immunity for life long to this terrible disease (World of Microbiology & Immunology).  In the United States, a Puritan minister by the name of Cotton Mather came to know about inoculation from his African slave, Onesimus. Onesimus claimed that he was inoculated with smallpox pus and never caught the tragic disease (Williams et al., 2014). Most Western practitioners initially rejected this type of medicinal treatment. They felt it was a dangerous and barbarous practice, but vaccination gained a tremendous amount of support at the turn of the nineteenth century when English physician Edward Jenner created a new smallpox vaccine derived from the relatively mild cowpox virus (Nelson, Easterbrook & McMahon, 2017).

 


Vaccination is much argued topic, whether or not vaccination should be given, it has certain side effects, like fever, pain around the site where the injection was given and muscle aches. It is also seen that some individuals are allergic to certain elements of vaccines (White, 2014). The topic of vaccinations comes with a side effect that has been an issue of debate throughout society and medicine from many years. Some people believe that vaccinations are harmful and actually promote disease, but in reality are that the concept of immunization is one of the most important progresses in scientific history that has led to the prevention of uncountable diseases and epidemics throughout the world. Yet, despite the overall improvement of public health, the use of vaccines is a controversial topic that is constantly being challenged. The critics of Vaccination have arguments that there are serious side effects related to vaccines that are not reported, are underfunded, and rarely researched. Vaccinations are in for over 200 years now and have been effective (Lehmann et al., 2014).

In Australia, the flu vaccine was suspended in April 2010 for children below five years of age because an many children were admitted to the emergency rooms with symptoms of febrile convulsions or other vaccine reactions within hours of getting this shot (Williams et al., 2015). In the UK, they do not even require the chicken pox vaccine because it is the cause of many health problems not just for children, but also triggers the grave risk of a shingles epidemic for adults. The shingles vaccine does not even work, which is likely why the UK continues not to offer the varicella vaccine to children. According to Jemal et al., (2013) In 1975, Japan raised its minimum vax age to 2 years old, The country’s infant mortality subsequently decreased to such low levels that Japan now has one of the lowest level in the Western the mortality rate  in comparison to the United States’ infant mortality rate is 33 (Jemal et al 2013). According to Michael et al., (2014), In Feb 2002, GlaxoSmithKline removed the vaccine Lyme disease vaccine saying poor sales was the reason. When in real reason found were people reported symptoms worse than the disease itself such as incurable arthritis or neurological impairment (Michael et al., 2014).The Rotavirus vaccine (Rotashield) was removed from the market in the year 1999 due to an association between the vaccine and life threatening bowel obstruction or twisting of the bowl. Another vaccine that has had many problems but is not yet withdrawn from the market is the Gardasil vaccine used for adolescent girls. A few years ago, Merck, the 50 billion dollar pharmaceutical company and vaccine manufacturer, recalled 743,000 contaminated Gardasil shots that contained glass particles. Fainting, paralysis, slurred speech are just a few of the reactions reported and yet this vaccine continues to stay on the market. At least 1600 adverse events have been reported since its approval in 2006, yet doctors are continuing to recommend this shot to their patients (Aaby, Ravn & Benn, 2016).

Conclusion

Vaccinations are very old method of immunization. In this method the practitioners aim at preventing the disease rather than curing after the person is infected with the disease. Vaccinations do have certain side effects but its positive affects cannot be denied it provides because immunization to children and protects them from many harmful disease. The incidents that have occurred due to the use of vaccines are although very much alarming, and raises questions whether vaccines can be used. The method is very painful for children raises an argument whether the children safe, because pharmacy companies sell vaccines and some of them are really focused on profit making. The intra-muscular vaccine is quite painful for children. In such scenario, how safe it would be to inject the vaccines to children, another important thing in this regard is once the vaccine has been injected it cannot be undone sot would be if any problem arises it would be really difficult for the management of adverse effects of vaccines. In many countries, certain vaccines are removed from the market, like the Rotashield a vaccine used for Rotavirus because it causes bowel obstruction. The incidents reported are the reason that makes the critics ignore the benefits of vaccination and hence they are reluctant to the use of vaccination. Even after so much of criticism vaccines are still used because they give immunization to many like Chicken Pox, Small Pox, Pertusis, Measles and many more. Vaccines are the most effective method discovered since now because of its quick action against infections.

 

References

Aaby, P., Ravn, H., & Benn, C. S. (2016). The WHO review of the possible nonspecific effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 35(11), 1247-1257.

Baxter, R., Tran, T. N., Ray, P., Lewis, E., Fireman, B., Black, S., ... & Saddier, P. (2014). Impact of vaccination on the epidemiology of varicella: 1995–2009. Pediatrics, 134(1), 24-30.

Chervenak, F. A., McCullough, L. B., & Brent, R. L. (2016). Professional responsibility and early childhood vaccination. The Journal of pediatrics, 169, 305-309.

Jemal, A., Simard, E. P., Dorell, C., Noone, A. M., Markowitz, L. E., Kohler, B., ... & Cronin, K. A. (2013). Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2009, featuring the burden and trends in human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated cancers and HPV vaccination coverage levels. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(3), 175-201.

Lehmann, B. A., de Melker, H. E., Timmermans, D. R., & Mollema, L. (2017). Informed decision making in the context of childhood immunization. Patient Education and Counseling.

Michael, C. A., OPV Campaign Missed Children Study Team, Ashenafi, S., OPV Campaign Missed Children Study Team, Ogbuanu, I. U., OPV Campaign Missed Children Study Team, ... & Corkum, M. (2014). An evaluation of community perspectives and contributing factors to missed children during an oral polio vaccination campaign–Katsina State, Nigeria. The Journal of infectious diseases, 210(suppl_1), S131-S135.

Nelson, N. P., Easterbrook, P. J., & McMahon, B. J. (2017). Epidemiology and Impact of Vaccination on Disease (vol 20, pg 607, 2016). CLINICS IN LIVER DISEASE, 21(2), XIII-XIII.

Shimizu, M., Imai, T., Yamazaki, S., Yagawa, A., Miyazawa, T., Nakamura, T., ... & Itahashi, K. (2016). Safety of influenza vaccination in children with severe allergy to hen's eggs: a prospective case series study. Arerugi=[Allergy], 65(2), 128-133.

White, M. D. (2014). Pros, cons, and ethics of HPV vaccine in teens—Why such controversy?. Translational andrology and urology, 3(4), 429.

Williams, W. W., Lu, P. J., O'Halloran, A., Bridges, C. B., Kim, D. K., Pilishvili, T., ... & Markowitz, L. E. (2015). Vaccination coverage among adults, excluding influenza vaccination-United States, 2013. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 64(4), 95-102.

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