Cancer can be defined as that condition of the human body in which the body cells grow in an unusual fashion. Researchers have long been conducting studies to find such a way that would be helpful in combating the effects of cancer on the human body. In this paper, an analysis and evaluation of such a research study has been highlighted and a proposal have been furnished for a new research.
Analysis and Evaluation of a Research Study
Vaccination against Human papilloma virus
At present time, there are two such prophylactic human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines which are available commercially in various countries. A tetravalent vaccine is available which comprises of four different VPH types: type 6, type 11 type 16, and type 18, which are distributed through the national cancer program in the state of Colombia. The very same program also provides the bivalent version of the vaccine which is comprised of the VPH of types 16 and types 18, respectively (C Reina and Muñoz).
The human papilloma virus of types 16 and type 18 are by themselves accountable for as much as 70% of all the cases of cervical cancer which are reported, mostly that of vulva, penis, anus, vagina and about one third of the reported oropharyngeal cancer (Bomprezzi and Wildemann).
The human papilloma virus of types 6 and types 11 are by themselves responsible for as much as 90% of all the cases of genital warts and/ or condylomas which are reported and a huge percentage of the laryngeal papillomatosis that occurs recurrently. Clinical trials have been conducted in controlled environment in about 30 countries: with a target group of around 40,000 adolescents and/ or young women who had been vaccinated previously.
How large or complete was the study?
The study was conducted in 30 countries with a subject group of around 40, 000 adolescent and/ or young female population.
How much data did they collect?
Data regarding the vaccination of 40,000 female subjects were collected.
Over what period of time did they collect it?
The study was conducted for a period of 4 years.
Where was the study conducted?
The study was conducted in 30 countries all over the world, including the USA, Denmark and Sweden.
Who or what was the focus of the study (e.g. describe the group of people, plants or animals)?
The study focused on adolescent and young females.
Who conducted the study? Did a group sponsor the study who had an interest in the outcome? If so, what was that interest?
The studies were conducted by various groups of independent researchers.
Was there an appropriate control group? If not, why not, and, if so, how so?
Since the researches were conducted all over the world in a simultaneous process, no single control group had the authority of the entire process. Each research was conducted under the supervision of an individual control group.
How did they analyze the data to reach their conclusion?
The data set that was collected over a period of 4 years were analyzed by each individual group: the results indicated in this paper is a cumulative response to the experiment conducted.
The results indicate that both the vaccines which have been produced through rigorous experimentation and testing, are safe and are able to prevent the human papilloma virus which causes cervical cancer in human (Kang et al.). The researches have indicated that the results of their study clearly showed that both vaccines are safe and prevent cervix cancer in human with 100 percent efficiency (Natan et al.).
The research question
Extensive researches have already been conducted on the efficiency of vaccination on human papilloma virus. The positive results indicated by these researches have encouraged the implementation of such policies and strategies to fight cervical cancer: the governments of many nation states have already started vaccinating school girls who are yet to achieve puberty (Navarro-Illana, Aznar and Díez-Domingo).
Now is the right time to conduct researches on the effects of such vaccination on the health of the population who have already been vaccinated: the results obtained through such studies should be helpful in evaluating those strategies and policies that are being taken towards fighting against cervical cancer (van der Burg and Melief).
The research hypothesis
The various research papers reviewed in this research have focused on the development of vaccines against the human papilloma virus which causes cervical cancer of the female population. As mentioned previously in the paper, most of the researches that have been conducted indicate that the process of vaccination has positive effects on the chances of being affected by cervical cancer (Watanabe et al.).
However, as the research domain is comparatively new, there exists almost no literature that emphasizes on the other effects of this vaccination. As most vaccine processes involve the process of generating acquired immunity by the process of exposure to weaker stain of the virus, chances always exists that such exposure or the vaccination process itself might cause some unwanted effects on the person who is being put under the vaccination program.
Hypothetically, the chances of such unwanted effects are always 100 percent in any vaccination process. Since, cervical cancer vaccinations can be considered as the latest development in cancer studies which have started being implemented, the current scenario regarding its side effects is still unknown to us and thus requires thorough investigation.
A description of the experiment
The experiment is aimed at finding out the unwanted side effects of vaccination against human papilloma virus require utmost care and supervision. Ideally, the following conditions should be satisfied by the experiment to reveal the true nature of the side effects of this vaccination process:
To conduct the research, a sample size of at least 200 to 250 subjects who had been previously vaccinated.
The subjects chosen should be from different age groups: this is because although the vaccination process has to be completed before the female population reach the age for puberty, the symptoms of cervical cancer are not noticed before they reach the child bearing ages. To be very specific, the maximum of the cervical cancer cases which are reported to the physicians indicate that disease occurs mainly in middle aged female population. Thus, the experiment should take into account the unwanted side effects of the vaccination process that might occur throughout the life span of the subjects who have been vaccinated.
The time span of the experiment should be equally long: the subjects being considered should be closely monitored for a continuous period of 1 year approximately, just after the vaccination process, to find out any immediate side effects of the procedure. After that, regular health checkups should be conducted in each 6 months and the data generated during the checkups should be analyzed to find out the ill effects, if any, of the process of vaccination against human papilloma virus on the health of subjects who have been vaccinated.
The steps that should be followed in the experiment are:
Vaccination of the subject.
Close and continued health monitoring of the subjects for 1 year.
Analysis of the data found during the first year of the experiment.
After the first year of the experimental process, the target group should be subjected to health checkups in each 6 months.
Analysis of the data found in this stage so as to approach the ultimate goal of the experiment.
The last two steps should be continued for at least 8 to 10 years to gather a clear picture of the situation.
Reflection and conclusion
The research conducted while preparing this assignment has helped me to gain a very clear insight about the current status in cancer research studies. The various information gathered during this assignment will be helpful toward the conduction of new research projects in future. The project proposal that has been presented in this report is based on the insight that has been gathered from considering the research project that has been analyzed in the first section of this paper.
Bomprezzi, R., and B. Wildemann. 'Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Following Vaccination Against Human Papilloma VIRUS'.Neurology 10 (2010): 864-865. Web.
C Reina, Julio, and Nubia Muñoz. 'Vaccine Against Human Papilloma Virus'.Colombia Médica 3 (2014): n. pag. Print.
Kang, Hee Sun et al. 'Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination: Perceptions Of Young Korean Women'.Journal of Advanced Nursing(2010): no-no. Web.
Natan, Merav Ben et al. 'Attitude Of Israeli Mothers With Vaccination Of Their Daughters Against Human Papilloma Virus'.Journal of Pediatric Nursing 1 (2011): 70-77. Web.
Navarro-Illana, Pedro, Justo Aznar, and Javier Díez-Domingo. 'Ethical Considerations Of Universal Vaccination Against Human Papilloma Virus'.BMC Medical Ethics 1 (2014): 29. Web.
van der Burg, Sjoerd H, and Cornelis JM Melief. 'Therapeutic Vaccination Against Human Papilloma Virus Induced Malignancies'.Current Opinion in Immunology 2 (2011): 252-257. Web.
Watanabe, Toru et al. 'Kikuchi–Fujimoto Disease Following Vaccination Against Human Papilloma Virus Infection And Japanese Encephalitis'.European Journal of Pediatrics 9 (2012): 1409-1411. Web.