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Discuss the various meanings of "spirituality" and their relevance in the context of managed care including sociological and philosophical perspectives. Consider the religious and cultural context of modern health care and medicine (i.e., pluralism, scientism, and postmodernism).
Be sure to address the following questions:

• What is prime reality?

• What is the nature of the world around us?

• What is a human being?

• What happens to a person at death?

• Why is it possible to know anything at all?

• How do we know what is right or wrong?

• What is the meaning of human history?

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines. An abstract is not required.?




The concept of spirituality is extremely broad and is comprises within itself a number of different perspectives. Generally, it includes the feeling of connecting with the things that is much bigger than humans and it also includes the search for a meaning for existence on this earth. Spirituality is such a human experience that is universal and is experienced by all in more or less extent (Dennis, 2014). However, it should be noted that the word spirituality does not have one single definition that is applicable throughout the world. In modern times this concept has mixed with a number of numinous and obscure customs and human psychologies and western and eastern traditions (Dorr, 2008).

Concept of Prime Reality

The concept of scientism states that science is the only path to the real world. In this concept of scientism, the notion of prime reality has been defined either as the cosmos which exists in itself and that which has always existed or it is defined as the God which is self-existent. In the study of Naturalism the idea of prime reality is such a matter that exists forever and is the only thing that exists throughout (Hunt & McMahon, 1993). The concept of scientism promotes cosmos to be the prime reality and eliminates God from this sphere. According to this concept, matter is the only thing that has existed throughout however the existence may not be in the current state. they consider matter to be the only thing which does not have any Creator.

Nature of the world around us

The idea of post modernism is usually used by the sociologists and for describing the method of thinking which has become more enveloping in the Western countries in the recent decades (YE, 2008). The concept of scientism describes the world around us from with an independent view that is connected to the removal of emotional extent of experience.


Human being

The idea of pluralism opines that all human beings learn, sleep, eat and live in a particular community along with other fellow human beings. In some traditions this condition is created by the God (Heelas, 2010). Some of the traditions consider the condition of human beings to be the reason for suffering. Some other traditions state that humans are the ones who have been so after going through harsh spiritual regulations. However, pluralism states that all human beings are the same and that it is one characteristic that is shared universally between all humans.

Person at death

The notion of post modernism does not have any moral supreme that tends to place the responsibility on the hands of the individuals. In this concept death is simply regarded as a method that leads to physical extinction and that it does not believe in any such thing like immorality. It further states that it is the physical world that only exists and they also do not believe in the existence of soul.

Possibility of knowing anything or everything

People who propose for the concept of scientism consider the world to be real. However, they also state that they also do not know the actual reality. To them what is observed is what they know. The manner in which the world portrays itself is what is known (Haack, 2003). What is present beyond this appearance is unknown for everyone.

What is right or wrong

The concept of post modernism states that there exists no absolute truth. According to a distinctive post modern perspective belief is above everything. If a person believes in something it is true or else it is false. This theory also states that all the principles that exist are nothing other than just being preferences. All they do is to be a disguise for the force to power. However there are a number of feminist scholars who consider that this sort of a concept arises from a male centric perspective which happens to be more coercive (Kostikova, 2013).

Human history

In the concept of naturalism history can be considered as a linear progression which does not necessarily have a special meaning. This concept does not believe in anything that gives super natural ideas (Williams & Robinson, 2014). It only believes in the things which exist. Things that do not exist do not have any place in this concept. Hence with regard to human history the existence of humans with regard to birth and death is the only thing that exists.



Dennis, P. (2014). Spirituality. Cork: BookBaby.

Dorr, D. (2008). Spirituality. Dublin: The Columba Press.

Haack, S. (2003). Defending science--within reason. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books.

Heelas, P. (2010). Spirituality. London: Routledge.

Hunt, D., & McMahon, T. (1993). The new spirituality. Eugene, Or.: Harvest House Publishers.

Kostikova, A. (2013). Postmodernism: A Feminist Critique. Metaphilosophy, 44(1-2), 24-28. doi:10.1111/meta.12008

Williams, R., & Robinson, D. (2014). Scientism. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

YE, H. (2008). Historiography of Psychology: Challenges of Postmodernism. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 40(5), 626-632. doi:10.3724/sp.j.1041.2008.00626


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