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Various Philosophical Theories Of Ethics

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Questions:

1.Consider the ethical dilemma surrounding deployment of artificial intelligence (AI) in Australian industries?

2.Critique Moor's Just-Consequentialist Framework using suitable examples?

3.Compare and contrast the code of ethics of any two computing professional bodies, such as, IEEE Computer Society, Australian Computer Society etc?

 

 

Answers:

1. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that focuses on making intelligent machines that react and work like human beings (Techopedia, 2017). According to an article published by Chapel (2017) published in The New Daily, Bib businesses in Australia are taking up and  embracing artificial intelligence (AI)  and over 60 percent are already planning human resource with this technology.  There is a challenge for this companies as to where and when they will implement the technology and whether or not it will affect the human society. 

Adopting artificial intelligence in companies have been reported to boost productivity and make cost savings. As intelligent systems proliferate and become more capable, our world is becoming more competent and therefore better off (Bossmann, 2016).  However, adopting Artificial intelligence will have great repercussions for the society at large. It is no doubt that embracing Artificial intelligence will replace human jobs resulting to unemployment. 

Since there have been inventions of methodologies of job automations, more room for people to work in complex roles can be created. This way people can move from the physical work that dominates the cognitive labour characterized by premeditated and organizational work in the global society.
Embracing Artificial intelligence will subsequently breed inequality. Majority of businesses still depend on hourly work schedules when it comes to services and products. However, by using artificial intelligence, companies can radically reduce on relying on human resource labour which means that proceeds will go to few people. As a result, persons who own machine based corporations in AI based companies make money breeding inequality.

 

Human behavior and interaction will be impacted. Intelligent machines are being created to model human behavior and are becoming better at as demonstrated by the Eugene Goostman interview done in 2015 (Aamoth, 2014). Eugene Goostman is a bot that tricked over thirty percent of a board of judges into accepting as true that he was an actual boy throughout the course of a chat conversation that lasted for five minutes during a Turing test.

It is impossible for machines to gain one hundred percent intelligence. Unlike humans, machines may be fooled through dot patterns to see things that are non-existent (Bossmann, 2017). This would result to half- baked intelligence. It is impossible for intelligent machines to reason and make other plans if original ones fail as humans would do in case of changes in a given scenario.  Therefore we cannot fully rely on AI to bring us into a new world of effective human labour, security and efficiency. There need to be assurance that the machine perform as planned, and that people won’t overpower it to use it for their own ends.

Embracing AI will affect security.  A powerful technology can easily become good and be used for despicable reasons as well. Robots created to substitute human fighters, or self-ruling missiles can be used to cause destruction when used wickedly. Because such fights won't be fought only on the battleground, cyber security will then become more significant. At the end of the day, intelligent systems are faster and have the capability to follow orders on a high level compared to humans. Each person must think about the ethics of the work they perform, and the work they choose not to perform.  Artificial Intelligence and robotics greatly affect our daily lives although they seem like science fiction.  For example, services like Google and Amazon help us find what we want by using AI.  They learn both from us and about us when we use them (Moore, 2017).  Advances in technology are really proliferating the business world and companies should look into all factors.

2. A deontological principle of ethics says that some deeds are ethically mandatory irrespective of their negative or positive concerns on humans (Moriarty, 2008). Deontological theories maintain that it is at all times the responsibility of an individual to do the right thing. Personal behavior should serve as exemplary behavior for other people and that specifically, one should always act towards others as he/ she would like to be acted upon. It is an essential duty of people to respect and treat others with dignity and not merely as a means to their own resolves. Considering others with high opinion means not violating their privileges and rights (Kent & Williams, 1993)

 


Moor was of the opinion that computing technology was openly radical since it is malleable (Moor, 2009). As a result, the flexibility of computer technology permitted individuals to perform a wide assortment of things that they originally would not do. One asks whether new things require to be done   as a result of the computer technology. This is  as a result of Moor(2009) noting  that a person can perform  new things  he/she ‘ought’ to do it and  that it would be ‘ethical’ to perform  them. It is rational to permit the fact that since such things weren’t completed in the past, there is no model that can be followed for good practice or ethical ruling that govern such activities.

Moor begins by bearing in mind the kind of behavior to be regulated by ethics. He has confidence in the fact that all people need to be sheltered against going through unnecessary damages. Another desirable objective of such ethics, according to Moor (2009) is the support for duties, rights and justice.

I agree that it is consequentialism is a great approach and a practical theory to ethics in computer ethics. But on the other hand, moral ethics should not be taken as rules that a person is forced on. Moral ethics socially and professionally should also be from the fact that a person treats others with respect and does as they are required with competence always. James Moor also suggests that computing policies should be developed to be fair for all people. But is should be noted that policies may not be fair to everyone all the time. When developing codes of conduct, consideration should include all the people and not only those that think they will benefit but should consider all the people who may be affected by the system. For example, in creating code of ethics, if it’s about the executive management, it should not only concern only the top management but all the other levels as well.

Moor similarly presented the piece about the good as the competitor of just. The section is about the company that needs to advertise services by using folks’ individual facts. It is important to think of how the people whose information is used will feel. This would be against privacy rights as no person wants to display their data and information about them. The article is presented as good since most people are in its support but only because many people would want to get relevant and as much information about other persons. However, with time, such information would cause uneasiness to all the people whose details are used in marketing plan.  The just consequentialist persons would be the first to know that the marketing plans of using personal information is not really a good thing. Therefore, having good principles to support just consequentialism is right in order not to have bias with other individuals.

 


3.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and Australian Computer Society Code of Ethics: The Differences and Similarities

Are there any differences as well as similarities between codes of ethics of computing professional bodies? Well, I have studied both IEEE and Australian Computer Society code of ethics and from my research, the two have similarities and differences.

The IEEE is a global biggest professional society with professionals and engineers from diverse backgrounds who have a lot of robust volunteers worldwide (Ravichandran, 2014). On the other hand, Australian Computer Society (ACS) is the association for the country’s information and communications technology (ICT) profession represented by ICT specialists in education, business and government sectors (ACS, 2017). 

IEEE and Australian Computer Society code of ethics have common features. Firstly, both emphasis and have a solid focus on the general societal and moral role of the profession. The codes help members realize their professional determinations by making the most of extraordinary possibilities. Both also focus on being passionate about be familiar with proficiency, ICT skills development and establishing a sense of belonging in the community.

Secondly, both Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and Australian Computer Society (ACS) code of ethics comprise of   conduct rules that cover the following four main areas including public interest, duty to relevant authorities, professional integrity and competence and finally duty towards professionalism (Ethical codes for computer professionals, 2015).

Thirdly, Both the IEEE and Australian Computer Society (ACS) codes make clear that they apply only to their members. All the members of either IEEE or Australian Computer Society (ACS) are required to conduct themselves in a manner as laid out in the rules of conduct with regard to social interaction and professionalism.

 

Equally, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and Australian Computer Society (ACS) stresses the importance of members to continuously obtain and maintain professional competence. Professional members are also required to take part in setting principles for applicable intensities of professional abilities and competence, and endeavor to attain those principles and standards. Members must also upgrade their technical knowhow and proficiencies and to achieve them in various ways including doing autonomous study and research; attending conferences, seminars and workshops; and be involved in proficient business organizations (ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct, 2017).Both Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and Australian Computer Society (ACS) give access to members who fulfill membership requirements including members who by experience or education and provide confirmation of proficiency in any IEEE selected field. Designated fields include Computer Sciences, Engineering, and Information Technology, Management, Biological and Medical Sciences, Physical Sciences, Mathematics, Education, Technical Communications and Law and Policy (IEEE Advancing Technology for Humanity, 2017). Additionally, professional members in both Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and Australian Computer Society (ACS) should improve and enhance the understanding of the computing industry and its consequences in the society at large. 

However, there exists some differences between Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and Australian Computer Society (ACS). For example, the IEEE Code of ethics was adopted in 1974 while The Australian Computer Society was formed on January 1966 (Australian Computer Society, 2017).

Also the IEEE combines a lot of disciplines as stated above. In contrast, the Australian Computer Society (ACS) IS based on the ICT profession only.

IEEE accepts membership from all over the world (IEEE Advancing Technology for Humanity, 2017). On the other hand, ACS is Australia based (Australian Computer Society, 2017)

To conclude, membership in either one of this organization promotes ethics both socially and economically for the betterment of the society.

 

References

Aamoth D. (2014). Interview with Eugene Goostman, the Fake Kid Who Passed the Turing Test. Retrieved from https://time.com/2847900/eugene-goostman-turing-test/

Australian Computer Society (2017). About the ACS. Retrieved from https://more.acs.org.au/about-the-acs

Advancing Technology for Humanity. (2017).IEEE standards. Retrieved from https://www.ieee.org/index.html

ACM Council, (2017). ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. Retrieved from https://www.acm.org/about-acm/acm-code-of-ethics-and-professional-conduct

Chapel, T. (2017). The New Daily: Majority of Australia’s big business firms embracing artificial intelligence. Retrieved from https://thenewdaily.com.au/money/work/2017/01/18/artificial-intelligence-australia-big-business/

Ethical codes for Computer professionals. (2015). Professional Issues in Information Technology. Retrieved from https://staffwww.dcs.shef.ac.uk/people/A.Sharkey/Nethicalcodes.pdf

Kent, A., & Williams, J. G. (1993). Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology: Volume 29 - Supplement 14: Agent-Oriented Programming to Socio-Organizational Aspects of Expert System Design. New York: CRC Press.

Moore, R. (2017). AI Ethics: Artificial Intelligence, Robots, and Society. Retrieved from https://www.cs.bath.ac.uk/~jjb/web/ai.htmlMoriarty, G. (2008). The Engineering Project: Its Nature, Ethics, and Promise. Philadelphia: Penn State PressMoor, J. (2009). Chapter 8: Just Consequentialism and Computing  

Ravichandran, N. (2014). What is the difference between an IEEE and ACM? Retrieved from https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-an-IEEE-and-ACM

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