country
$20 Bonus + 25% OFF
Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!

Question:

Discuss about the Virology Hemagglutination Assay.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction

The hemagglutination  (HA) assay is a simple and quantitative technique of culturing influenza virus based on their ability to attach to molecules present on the red blood cells. In case of research related to the avian influenza virus, the tool is used for screening of the cell culture extracted from the emryonating chicken eggs with type A influenza (1).  The surface of the Influenza A virus consist of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase protein (NA) (2). The hemagglutinin protein present on the Influenza A virus has the potential to bind with N-acetylneuraminic acid, which contains the proteins, found on the avian and mammalian erythrocytes. In case of high concentration of the Influenza virus, combination of the protein leads to an agglutination reaction. This causes both the erythrocytes to link together and consequently form a diffused lattice. Agglutination may be caused by other viruses too, such as paramyxovirus, adenovirus and bacteria with hemaggutinating property (1). Therefore, HA cannot be regarded as an identification assay, hemagglutination inhibition assay is to necessary to identify the type of virus present in mammalian cells.

Discussion

From the analysis of the results obtained from HA assay, it can be said that it is an easy and sensitive technique that gives direct results within 30 minutes. Expected outcome was possible because every steps in the experiment was done accurately performed. However, slight difference in reading was seen due to the temperature of the laboratory, equipments used, technical expertise of the experimenter and the quality of chicken erythrocytes obtained (3). The HA assay may not be efficient in detecting viable virus, however live and inactivated viruses are readily detected from this technique. The HA assay also has the potential to detect non-infectious virus particles and inactivated or degraded viral particles.

During the experiment, it was found that erythrocytes did not settle in control wells even after 20-30 minutes. This might have occulted due to poor quality of hemolysed erthyrocyte suspension or incorrect pH of PBS or contamination of the well with viral antigen. This could have been avoided by performing all the steps in a Class II biological safety cabinet to prevent contamination. Secondly, aerosol resistant tips and use of asecptic technique while taking the aliquot from the virus containing tube might reduce the problem during the experiment.

Other safe and accurate technique is that HA assay plate should be read only when the erythrocytes present in the control well have settled down well. However, plates should not be kept for longer time before reading and reading should be taken as far as possible. The neuraminidase protein found on the surface of the Influenza virus can break virus bond cells and facilitate breaking apart the lattice formed by the virus and erythrocytes. In some viral strains, there might be very high neuraminidase activity, which might hamper proper haemagglutination process (4).

Conclusion

The report summarized the efficacy of HA assay in detecting type of virus in culture cells. The subtype of virus is identified on the basis of agglutination reaction when erythrocytes combine to form a lattice. As other virus and bacteria might also have hemagglutinating properties, the type of virus is confirmed by hemagglutination inhibition assay. The discussion related to experiment revealed that following accurate and aseptic technique is important to avoid error in reading and misinterpretation of the study results.

 

Reference

  1. Killian ML. Hemagglutination assay for the avian influenza virus. Avian Influenza Virus. 2008:47-52.
  2. Influenza Type A Viruses | Avian Influenza (Flu) [Internet]. Cdc.gov. 2017 [cited 3 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/influenza-a-virus-subtypes.htm
  3. Truelove S, Zhu H, Lessler J, Riley S, Read JM, Wang S, Kwok KO, Guan Y, Jiang CQ, Cummings DA. A comparison of hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization assays for characterizing immunity to seasonal influenza A. Influenza and other respiratory viruses. 2016 Nov 1;10(6):518-24.
  4. Monto AS, Petrie JG, Cross RT, Johnson E, Liu M, Zhong W, Levine M, Katz JM, Ohmit SE. Antibody to influenza virus neuraminidase: an independent correlate of protection. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2015 Apr 8:jiv195.
OR

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2018). Virology Hemagglutination Assay. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/virology-hemagglutination-assay.

"Virology Hemagglutination Assay." My Assignment Help, 2018, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/virology-hemagglutination-assay.

My Assignment Help (2018) Virology Hemagglutination Assay [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/virology-hemagglutination-assay
[Accessed 09 April 2020].

My Assignment Help. 'Virology Hemagglutination Assay' (My Assignment Help, 2018) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/virology-hemagglutination-assay> accessed 09 April 2020.

My Assignment Help. Virology Hemagglutination Assay [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2018 [cited 09 April 2020]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/virology-hemagglutination-assay.


For years now, MyAssignmenthelp.com is providing affordable essay help to millions of students worldwide. Our essay assistance services have helped us in assisting students with even the toughest essay assignments. We take pride in the fact that we cater the best assistance to search terms like help me with my essay. We offer affordable services in the fastest way possible. For our fast delivering services, students trust us with their urgent essay assignment needs. Two of our most popular essay writing services are maths essay help and English essay help.

Latest Biology Samples

BIO 1100 Non-Majors Biology

Download : 0 | Pages : 6

Answer: Some of the genetics terminology are: Gene : DNA segments carry all the genetic information. This information is called genes, Gene is a sequence of DNA bases. These bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine. It decides the order of amino acids (Lodish et al., 2013). Carcinogen: Any substance which has the potential of causing cancer Allele: Allele is a different form of gene. When the copies of gene is different, they are kno...

Read More arrow

7312MED Epidemiology: Pinciples And Practices

Download : 0 | Pages : 6
  • Course Code: 7312MED
  • University: Griffith University
  • Country: Australia

Answer: 1 (a): City A: Crude incidence rate per 100,000 men = (650/600,000) X 100,000 = 108.33 Incidence rate per 100,000 men for the age group of 0 – 44, = (50/500,000) X 100,000 = 10 Incidence rate per 100,000 men for the age group of 45 – 64, = (250/75,000) X 100,000 = 333.33 Incidence rate per 100,000 men for the age group of 65+, = (350/25,000) X 100,000 = 1400 City B: Crude incidence rate per 100,000 men = (3580/2,5...

Read More arrow Tags: Australia Calamvale Management Decision making and problemsolving University of New South Wales 

BIOL1180 Anatomy And Physiology II

Download : 0 | Pages : 9

Answer: Definition of the disorder and its signs and symptoms:  Cystic fibrosis is a progressive and genetic disorder that results in development of persistent lung infections. This disorder limits the ability of the affected individuals in breathing over time. Some of the symptoms are persistent cough along with the production of thick mucus, wheezing as well as shortness of breath, bowel disturbances like frequent oily stools and int...

Read More arrow

GGR329 H1S: The Global Food System And Issue

Download : 0 | Pages : 2

Answer: Thesis Statement Considering the recent trends in the development of innovative production technologies such as meat biofabrication, ethically raised animals are an essential component of ecologically oriented agricultural system and hence, will pave the way for ethical, safe and nutritious ‘meatification’ of diets. Summary of Contrasting Perspectives Animal husbandry and poultry rearing practices have continues since ...

Read More arrow

8845NRS Assignment Trimester 1 2019

Download : 1 | Pages : 7
  • Course Code: 8845NRS
  • University: Griffith University
  • Country: Australia

Answer: Introduction Clostridium difficile often called C. difficile or C. diff is a microorganism that can cause serious issues ranging from diarrhoea to severe swelling of the colon. Infection from C. difficile often affects older people in a hospital setting or in clinical care amenities and naturally occurs after the use of antibiotic medicines (Brandt et al., 2012). However, studies reported cumulative rates of this infection among indiv...

Read More arrow
Next
watch

Save Time & improve Grades

Just share your requirements and get customized solutions on time.

question
We will use e-mail only for:

arrow Communication regarding your orders

arrow To send you invoices, and other billing info

arrow To provide you with information of offers and other benefits

1,249,346

Orders

4.9/5

Overall Rating

5,068

Experts

Our Amazing Features

delivery

On Time Delivery

Our writers make sure that all orders are submitted, prior to the deadline.

work

Plagiarism Free Work

Using reliable plagiarism detection software, Turnitin.com.We only provide customized 100 percent original papers.

time

24 X 7 Live Help

Feel free to contact our assignment writing services any time via phone, email or live chat.

subject

Services For All Subjects

Our writers can provide you professional writing assistance on any subject at any level.

price

Best Price Guarantee

Our best price guarantee ensures that the features we offer cannot be matched by any of the competitors.

Our Experts

Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

184 Order Completed

96% Response Time

Arapera Billing

Masters in Management, MMgt

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

93 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Jackson Mitchell

MiM (Masters in Management) in Supply Chain Management

New Jersey, United States

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

234 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Samantha Ji

PhD in Chemistry with Specialization in Organic

Singapore, Singapore

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

755 Order Completed

95% Response Time

Douglas Cowley

Masters in Finance with Specialization in Audit

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me

FREE Tools

plagiarism

Plagiarism Checker

Get all your documents checked for plagiarism or duplicacy with us.

essay

Essay Typer

Get different kinds of essays typed in minutes with clicks.

edit

GPA Calculator

Calculate your semester grades and cumulative GPa with our GPA Calculator.

referencing

Chemical Equation Balancer

Balance any chemical equation in minutes just by entering the formula.

calculator

Word Counter & Page Calculator

Calculate the number of words and number of pages of all your academic documents.

Refer Just 5 Friends to Earn More than $2000

Check your estimated earning as per your ability

1

1

1

Your Approx Earning

Live Review

Our Mission Client Satisfaction

I hope I get good mark! I hope I get good mark!I hope I get good mark!I hope I get good mark!I hope I get good mark!I hope I get good mark!

flag

User Id: 392150 - 08 Apr 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

HANDED IN ON TIME THOUGH GAVE A VERY SHORT TIME TO DO SO. THE WORK WAS WELL DONE TOO!!

flag

User Id: 194216 - 08 Apr 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Always impecable work. I super reccoment this service to anyone. The quality of work and agile delivery are the high points.

flag

User Id: 396689 - 08 Apr 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

this was an excellent assignment I cant understand how the assignments can differ in presentation, is it that some writers are trained and some are not.

flag

User Id: 315260 - 08 Apr 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating
callback request mobile
Have any Query?