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Discuss about the Visitor and Crowd Behaviour Management.

It is noticed that the tourist numbers in Northern Territory in Australia have been declining due to some of the significant problems. In order to capture the photographs of crocodile feeding with the help of a suspended pole, the risks of the wildlife safety are increasing significantly. The minimization of such wildlife dangers, it is necessary to concentrate on the alternative procedures of the risk minimization (Boulton et al., 2014). It can be inferred that the authority of the Northern territory needs to create the specific area for the crocodiles. The tourists can even take photographs from a distant place and the boat will be safe from the attacks of the wild crocodiles.

The case study points out that the tourist numbers in the Northern territory of Australia have been declining due to some of the specific issues. It is to be specified that the crocodile tours on the South Aligator River and Adelaide are the major source of gathering more tourists or visitors. The crocodiles are fed by launching them out of the water and grabbing the fish bait from a distant and suspended pole. The major motif if the visitors are to capture the photographs and take the selfies from other side of the cruises (Scherrer & Doohan, 2014). However, due to such acts, the reptiles are often overfed and becoming more aggressive. The crocodiles can even get attracted towards the boat and fearless around the tourists. It generates the sense of danger for both the tourists and the operators. It is sometimes creating the danger for the lives of the crocodiles. It can be anticipated that the wildlife operators may sometimes use some of the techniques to get hold of the wild reptiles in order to protect themselves and the tourists. Hence, during such situation, there is the possibility of harming the lives of the crocodiles.

The tourists are also not safe from the hands of the wild creatures. When the tourists are taking selfies of the crocodiles from the different part of the cruises, the lack of proper cautions may create the danger. The issues are quite hazardous for the environment and its people as well (Berra, Wedd & He, 2016). The risks of the tourists’ lives are significantly decreasing the number of the tourists visiting the place every year. Hence, it creates the impact on the economic factors in the travel and tourism industry. Lack of the right approach may lead the situation towards worse direction.

Beginning

The severity of the risks can be much dangerous for both the tour operators and the tourists visiting the place. Moreover, when the reptiles are overfed, it may create the health issues for the crocodiles. Sometimes it can make them vulnerable and they can harm the other visitors as well. On the other hand, the tour operators suggested that the best practices are needed to be undertaken to maintain the proper cautions near to the feeding area. Increasing the proper cautions in the areas where the crocodiles live is also necessary. The best practices are needed to be undertaken to make the tourists aware about the severity of the dangers.

The continuous loss of the tourists’ lives or the animals’ lives will be major threats to the sustainability of this tourist location (Manolis & Webb, 2013). Moreover, the area can be prohibited due to the life risks. The loss of the tourist supports may create the negative impact on the economic structure in the travel and tourism sector. Even though the tourists seek the adventurous journey, they would not prefer to risk their lives. Gradually, the number of the tourists will increase much significantly.  Hence, it is necessary to pay the closer attention towards the issue and resolving them by utilizing the proper solutions.  

The obtained idea from the challenges in the cases study, it is noticed that various stakeholders are associated with the wildlife sustainability process. The first group of stakeholders is the tourists. It has been observed that the tourists are more likely to experience the adventurous tours (Williams, 2016). They tend to capture the adventurous moments in photographs and share those pictures with other friends. However, the lack of the sufficient awareness about the risk severity may create the hazardous situations for the tourists. Second group of stakeholders is the tour operators, who are there to please the tourists with the greater experiences. The tour operators have paid attention towards feeding the crocodiles with the fish bait from a suspended pole. It creates the adventurous sequences for the tourists and they can capture the moments in their lenses. Such adventurous views are much attractive to the tourists and the tour operators can make benefits accordingly (Reserves & Area, 2014).

The third stakeholder group is the lobby groups that include the animal rights organisation and the local fishing lobby. The people in this lobby group opposed this system of feeding the crocodiles. They implied that the reptiles are overfed due to the frequent process. Hence, they produce the aggressive males that can be harmful for others’ lives (Kyne & Pillans, 2014). Another stakeholder group is the boat operators who are concerned about the reptiles. The tour operators are using these techniques for the photography purposes of the tourists. As the consequences, the crocodiles are becoming familiar and attracted to the nearby boats. It is much frightening for the boat operators and the fishermen as well. In fact, there is the possibility that it create the accidents for the tourists. They also implied that they are not the only beneficiaries for the crocodile tours. Hence, the concerns of the stakeholders are needed to be taken into considerations.  

Consider Again

The crocodile tour is mainly signified for the adventurous views of the crocodiles that are fed through the suspended pole. The jumping crocodiles are the major attraction for the tourists. However, it has been recognized that the procedure is quite problematic for the associated stakeholders as well as the lives of the water animals (Andrews, 2015). Hence, it can be assumed that the authority of the Wildlife Day Cruise needs to pay the closer attention towards the different typologies of feeding the crocodiles and making the exciting views to the tourists. The authority can create the barriers in the living area or feeding area of these crocodiles. Moreover, the authority can align more restrictions to keep the tourists, boat operators, and other people safe from the crocodile attacks. The association of the animal rights organisation is also necessary to serve this purpose.

Many of the tourism programs are undertaken to keep the closer look to the wildlife. In past few years, this kind of tourism has grown much drastically. Many of the tourism companies have been undertaking the similar types of tourism programs to attract more tourists in this adventurous journey (Bayliss et al., 2016). Accordingly, it is much beneficial in generating revenues in the travel and tourism sector. It is to be indicated that the tourism industry has the remarkable contribution in the global economy. Association of the wildlife watching tourism has increased the economic structure in a commendable manner (Manalo, Baltazar & Tabayag, 2016). However, it has been noticed that despite of significant growth in the global economy through the wildlife watching tourisms, it is creating the adverse effects on the wildlife. It usually changes their behaviour, damages their habitats, and changes their psychologies. Sometimes, it has been observed that the animals become much vulnerable when there is the disturbance created during their breeding period (Lanier, 2014). It can be the serious type of threat to the survival of the population. According to Green (2015), wildlife watching tourisms have the negative impact on the natural habitats of the animals. It generates the sense of fear during the sensitive time of their lives.

The disruption created during the feeding time of the wildlife by the tourists usually changes the social behaviour patterns. The artificial feeding creates the breakdown in the territorial breeding system. The tourisms practices often disrupt the animals as well as the humans. The tour operators even need to focus on the effective tourist management. Similarly, the boat operators even need to understand the relevant position for carrying the tourists from a distant place. Therefore, the tourists will be able to watch the crocodiles and the wildlife will also stay safe. The changes in the gender roles and the family structure are the major social and cultural impacts of the tourism sectors (Ryan & Huyton, 2014). It generally leads to the loss of self-esteem and tensions for the older generations and other people as well. It also signifies the loss of artifacts, the local cultures and languages, and prevents access to the sacred sites. Cárdenas and Cárdenas (2014) argued that wildlife is priceless natural resources that are beneficial for the people. On the contrary, the wildlife affects the lives of the people in different regions. The damages created by the wildlife are much disruptive for the peaceful existence of the people of the community near to the wildlife areas. Therefore, it is signified that the human and wildlife conflicts are inevitable (Mohsin & Ryan, 2013).

Definition of the Stakeholders


Peterson & Nelson (2017) defined that the wildlife is one of the major components of the biodiversity. Wildlife tourism is quite different to the ecotourism process. Sustainable development in the tourism sector signifies the accomplishments of the current needs without compromising the capability of the future generations for meeting their needs. Tourism industry needs to ensure the positive contribution to the cultural and natural environment. In fact, it generates the commendable benefits to the host communities along with the cultural and social degradations (Adams, 2016). On the other hand, it has been noticed that the wildlife tourism has the preferable contribution on the economy structure of the country for increasing the benefits. It is thus essential to promote the global awareness in saving the wildlife. The initiatives undertaken by United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) are quite beneficial in maintaining the proper balance between the wildlife tourism and protection of the animals’ lives (Caldicott et al., 2012). The widely accepted fact reveals that the wildlife tourism is predicted to inherently sustainable. However, it is even essential to verify the reports to find a conclusion.

Wildlife watching will be considered sustainable if the habitats or the watched species are ensuring some of the specific benefits to the community development process. The changes brought to the wildlife habitats can make the animals much vulnerable and they can turn into the life takers. The wildlife promotions will be much significant in making the people aware of the risks. Communicating the destination characteristics is also much necessary to promote the wildlife sustainability (Letnic & Connors, 2013). Some of the communicative destination characteristics are as follows:

  • Traditional Advertising
  • Celebrity endorsements
  • Tourism professionals
  • Independent image of the formation agents
  • Unsponsored travelogues
  • Word of Mouth
  • Organic information

These aspects are the major considerations for promoting the wildlife sustainability. The considerations are quite beneficial in making more improvements in the crocodile tours in South Alligator River and Adelaide River. Promoting the proper practices to save the wildlife, tourists and other people is necessary for the future sustainability (Fuller, Buultjens & Cummings, 2012).

The case study highlights the different stakeholder groups that have the linking with the crocodile tours on the Adelaide and South Alligator River in the Northern Territory of Australia. The emergence of the issues is observed due to the artificial feeding of the crocodiles by the tourists. These adventurous practices are quite hazardous for the associated stakeholder groups. However, in order to minimize the issues, it is essential to involve some of the stakeholders. The authority of the Australian Northern Territory needs to take the active participation to protect the areas in which the crocodiles live. On the other hand, the Kakadu and Darwin tourist trade and association need to restrict the tourists by ensuring the best practices. It is important to mention that the stakeholders have to be cooperative to develop the best practices regarding the wildlife safety and security. The lobby groups also need to pay attention in order to promote the effective practices related to this initiative.

Exploration of the Assumptions

The tourist operators structure the operational activities in such a way that can be attractive enough to get the supports of more tourists. However, it is already discussed that the practices are quite dangerous for both the wildlife and the humans. It is thus essential to promote the practices in an effective way that can create the impact on the tourists. The tour operators even need to focus on the effective tourist management. Similarly, the boat operators even need to understand the relevant position for carrying the tourists from a distant place. Therefore, the tourists will be able to watch the crocodiles and the wildlife will also stay safe. It can thus be implied that the cooperation between these stakeholders is essential required for establishing the initiatives. In fact, these stakeholders even need to maintain their responsibility in a significant way.

The human-wildlife conflicts are the major concerns in these days to maintain the proper wildlife sustainability. It is thus important to develop the creative options for maintaining the safety parameter. The safety for the humans and the wildlife is essential. The alternative options are presented further:

The tourists board on the cruise boats to view the adventurous movement of the crocodiles in Adelaide and South Alligator River. The practices have become much frequent that the crocodiles are familiar with the process and they come closer to the boats. The boat operators find it much risky to stay nearby the aggressive males. Therefore, the use of the GIS Mapping Software and GPS tracking collars would be one of the most creative options to reduce the challenges with the human-wildlife conflicts. The use of the hot spots with such GPS system will help in identifying the area where the risks have the probability to occur (Ryan & Huyton, 2014). The GPS system can be placed in the developed regions and the edges of Adelaide and South Alligator River. The control room of the tour operators will keep the track of the danger zone. If the crocodiles are breaking the point and the boats are on the danger zone, the GPS system would alert people. The control room would inform the boat operators at once when the signal is recognized. The boat operators will be able to move the boat from the zone. Hence, the creative tactics can be much helpful in reducing the human-wildlife conflicts. It reduces the possibility of the risks that may occur due to the aggressive male crocodiles.

Literature Information

The tour operators need to adopt some of the advanced technologies to develop this GPS system. It is essential to obtain the proper knowledge about the use of these GPS systems. The technicians would be present in the control room from where they can keep the eye on the zones. It will be safer approaches for both the humans and the wildlife. The boat operator will be risk free as they will receive the signals at proper time. On the other hand, the Kadaku and Darwin tourist trade and association and employment that are dependent on almost 40,000 visitors will provide the safer travel to these tourists. The technological checks and monitoring are also necessary.

It is necessary to develop the ideas about the best practices in the crocodile cruise process. Many of the tourists seek the adventurous travel experiences. Even the tour operators try to meet the expectation level of the tourists. Sometimes they even try to surprise the travelers with the extra attractive features. However, in many of the cases, it has been observed that this adventurous journey becomes the threats to both the humans and the wildlife. Hence, it is necessary to arrange a proper security practices program for the people who have been setting out for the journey. The practices are providing the proper training to the people who have been joining this adventurous trip. Moreover, the tour operators will also receive the proper lesson of the best practices that can keep the tourists safe from the crocodiles. In fact, it is even necessary to keep the focus on the foods. If the crocodiles are overfed, it may make them more vulnerable and unhealthy. The guiding principles and best practices will be necessary to minimize the likelihood of the risks affecting the humans and wildlife.

The evaluation of the best practices is necessary for the wildlife sustainability. The tourisms practices often disrupt the animals as well as the humans. The wildlife affects the lives of the people in different regions. The damages created by the wildlife are much disruptive for the peaceful existence of the people of the community near to the wildlife areas. Therefore, it is signified that the human and wildlife conflicts are inevitable. However, making the necessary movements and saving the lives of the natural wildlife is essential. Moreover, if they become vulnerable, it will be riskier for the humans as well. The support of the government in making the guiding principles to keep the restriction on the crocodile tours. The lack of the sufficient awareness about the risk severity may create the hazardous situations for the tourists. The authority can create the barriers in the living area or feeding area of these crocodiles. Moreover, the authority can align more restrictions to keep the tourists, boat operators, and other people safe from the crocodile attacks. It is thus essential to promote the practices in an effective way that can create the impact on the tourists. The tour operators even need to focus on the effective tourist management.

References

Adams, C. E. (2016). Urban wildlife management. CRC press.

Andrews, M. (2015). Northern Territory: Star of the north. Australia's Paydirt, 1(233), 30.

Bayliss, P., Saunders, K., Dutra, L. X., Melo, L. F., Hilton, J., Prakash, M., & Woolard, F. (2016). Assessing sea level-rise risks to coastal floodplains in the Kakadu Region, northern Australia, using a tidally driven hydrodynamic model. Marine and Freshwater Research.

Berra, T. M., Wedd, D., & He, Y. (2016). Larval nurseryfish, Kurtus gulliveri (Perciformes: Kurtidae), in the Adelaide River of the Northern Territory: their season, fellow travellers and unusual rib anatomy. Australian Journal of Zoology, 64(4), 262-266.

Boulton, A., Brock, M., Robson, B., Ryder, D., Chambers, J., & Davis, J. (2014). Australian freshwater ecology: processes and management. John Wiley & Sons.

Caldicott, D. G., Croser, D., Manolis, C., Webb, G., & Britton, A. (2012). Crocodile attack in Australia: an analysis of its incidence and review of the pathology and management of crocodilian attacks in general. Wilderness & environmental medicine, 16(3), 143-159.

Cárdenas, L. B., & Cárdenas, E. B. (2014). Gaps in environmental law on sustainable socioeconomic development. Ecological Dimensions for Sustainable Socio Economic Development, 64, 223.

Fuller, D., Buultjens, J., & Cummings, E. (2012). Ecotourism and indigenous micro-enterprise formation in northern Australia opportunities and constraints. Tourism Management, 26(6), 891-904.

Green, R. J. (2015). Conserving biodiversity as tourism (including wildlife tourism) expands: outcomes of discussions across four wildlife tourism workshops. The Environment People Nexus in Sustainable Tourism: Finding the Balance, 151.

Kyne, P. M., & Pillans, R. D. (2014). Protocols for surveying and tagging sawfishes and River Sharks. National Environmental Research Program Marine Biodiversity Hub, Hobart.

Lanier, P. (2014). The positive impacts of ecotourism in protected areas. Sustainable Tourism VI, 187, 199.

Letnic, M., & Connors, G. (2013). Changes in the distribution and abundance of saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in the upstream, freshwater reaches of rivers in the Northern Territory, Australia. Wildlife Research, 33(7), 529-538.

Manalo, R. I., Baltazar, P. C., & Tabayag, E. A. (2016). Preliminary Assessment of the Abundance of Indo-Pacific Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) in Palawan, Philippines. CROCODILES, 65.

Manolis, S. C., & Webb, G. J. (2013, September). Assessment of saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) attacks in Australia (1971–2013): implications for management. In Crocodiles Proceedings of the 22nd Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN (pp. 97-104).

Mohsin, A., & Ryan, C. (2013). Backpackers in the Northern Territory of Australia—motives, behaviours and satisfactions. International Journal of Tourism Research, 5(2), 113-131.

Peterson, M. N., & Nelson, M. P. (2017). Why the North American Model of Wildlife Conservation is problematic for modern wildlife management. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 22(1), 43-54.

Reserves, C., & Area, M. S. C. (2014). Adelaide River Conservation Reserves.

Ryan, C., & Huyton, J. (2014). Who is interested in Aboriginal tourism in the Northern Territory, Australia? A cluster analysis. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8(1), 53-88.

Scherrer, P., & Doohan, K. (2014). Taming wicked problems: towards a resolution of tourism access to Traditional Owner lands in the Kimberley region, Australia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 22(7), 1003-1022.

Williams, M. (2016). Northern Territory, Canberra and Sydney, Australia (1964–1984). In Nile Waters, Saharan Sands (pp. 37-44). Springer International Publishing.

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