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Vitamin E And Coronary Heart Disease Add in library

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Question:

Describe about vitamin E and coronary heart disease?
 
 

Answer:

Epidemiological evidences:

Various ecologic studies as well as epidemiological evidences suggested that the region of the people have greater chances to suffer from various coronary heart diseases where intake of vitamin E, is in comparatively in less amount. But the effectiveness of this vitamin E is more relevant for the prolong period of time, as two separate clinical study reposts that people who intake anti-oxidant in the form of vitamin E for more than two years has 40 % lower chances to suffer from the coronary heart disease, but when the study conducted for less that 6 months there is no remarkable effect of vitamin E is found (Basson, 2010). In the second cases the duration of doses also very short like <100IU/d. Rapidly increasing clinical evidence suggest that regular intake of vitamin E decrease the risk of atherosclerosis as well as other coronary heart diseases as vitamin E act as scavengers of free radicals which partially or completely prevent the oxidation of fatty acid. In other side of randomized survey, a dose of 50 IU of vitamin E has no such effect on the risk of getting coronary heart disease as well as atherosclerosis. So it can be suggested that comparatively higher doses of vitamin E have significant influence on reducing the risk of coronary heart disease (First International Congress of Translational Research in Human Nutrition March 19–20, 2010 Polydome, Clermont-Ferrand, France,2010).    

In a clinical study which is conducted by nutritionist gay in a cross sectional methods on three specific areas of Europe. The areas are classified upon the tendency of people of particular area to get attack by coronary heart disease; these are high mortality for coronary disease including Scotland, North Karelia etc; medium mortality area for coronary diseases like Northern Ireland as well as low mortality is like southern Italy (Guo, 2010). It is significantly shown that concentration of vitamin E which is adjusted in relation to the cholesterol in blood plasma is remarkably higher in the people who are belonging from the low mortality area for coronary heart disease. In a context of another detailed study effectiveness of anti-oxidants in the form of vitamin E is proved. This study includes the 16 different populations in Europe which is conducted on cross sectional structure, also suggested that plasma concentration Vitamin E and risk of coronary heart disease or coronary mortality rate are inversely proportional to each other (Hill, 2010). Though the dietary intake of vitamin E is the main focusing factor in relation to the coronary heart disease, but certainly other factors associated with coronary heart disease must be considered. Here for specific individual who are administered optimum amount if vitamin E in daily basis as well as for the people who has the more plasma concentration of vitamin E in their blood have relatively low chances of coronary heart diseases (Hosseini, 2011).

In a clinical study in the form of cross-sectional design conducted by Salonen, concentration of vitamin E in the blood plasma of patient is compared to the plasma concentration of healthy subjects. In this study there are two groups are involved ( Majima, 2011). The first group is associated with 449 people who have never had coronary heart disease or any symptoms of coronary heart diseases. The researchers evaluate the concentration of vitamin E in the blood plasma of this group in the method of stress test which is negative. In the other side the second group is associated with 65 people who undiagnosed coronary heart disease in the past or any symptoms of coronary heart diseases. The researchers evaluate the concentration of vitamin E in the blood plasma of this group in the method of stress test which is positive (Appelman, 2010). As the results came out, it can be suggested that there are no remarkable differences in the average value of concentration of vitamin E in the blood plasma of each individual group. In the case of another clinical study which is conducted in the case-control design by Riemersma in 350 people, where angina pectoris is under the focusing factor, relating to the concentration of vitamin E in blood plasma. After the scientific evaluation in prospective structure overview the researchers suggest that in which cases the plasma level of vitamin E is lower, the occurrence of angina pectoris or the probability as well as the symptoms of the angina pectoris significantly became higher.

 

Prevention of coronary heart disease in the perspective of vitamin E and its effects:

Basically number of compounds exists in combined form in vitamin E which is very significant from the perspective of anti-oxidant characteristics. Various important elements like tocopherol, tocotrienols which act as lipid soluble substance in the form of anti-oxidants (Nikkhah, 2011). The main reason behind the low risk of getting attack of coronary heart disease upon the application of vitamin E is that, the anti-oxidant property of vitamin E prevents the oxidative modification caused by lipoprotein with low-density as well as cholesterol. And this low oxidation helps to decrease the amount of lipoprotein or cholesterol uptake which later accumulates in the artery lumen. In the perspective of coronary heart diseases management plan, various observational study suggest that those who are administered optimum amount of anti-oxidant in the form of vitamin E ,have greater chance to prevent the abnormalities relating to cardiovascular system. The associations of America which are dealing with various heart diseases are also suggested that balance diet intake, mainly focusing on the fruits and diet as well as green vegetables which are the rich sources of anti-oxidants especially in the form of vitamin E (Norval, 2014). Though in the significant recommendation of the associations of America which are dealing with various heart diseases, there is no indication of supplement of vitamin E. Vitamin E also directly responsible for the reduction of excessive amount of fatty tissue in the body thus it also reduces the risk of heart attack. As vitamin E methodologically hydrolyzed before it can be absorbed in the intestine so, most of the cases for the healthy persons, it is effective as well as safe (Raukas, 2012). But intake of vitamin E can be causing some vital adverse effect, when it administered in excessive high dose. The fatal high dose like, in the range of 400 IU/day to 450 IU/day may cause even death of the patient or individual. Besides this various significant adverse effect are there for the administration of vitamin E in excessive amount. These are nausea associated with diarrhea, patient may also suffer from cramp of stomach, gaining excessive body weight. Weakness followed by depression; blurred vision and rash will also included in the adverse effect for intake of vitamin E in excessive amount especially prolong period of time.

Discussion:

It is one of the most important parts where overall view on the vitamin E and in the boarder perspective anti-oxidants and coronary heart diseases are discussed. Vitamin basically treated as a fat-soluble nutrient which is naturally sourced in foods such as nuts, seeds, fish oils and vegetables that act as a crucial lipid associated antioxidant within the body. It can be suggested on the basis of various clinical study that comparatively higher doses of vitamin E have significant influence on reducing the risk of coronary heart disease (Schaefer, 2010). Vitamin E is present in membranes and lipoproteins that terminates various essential chain reactions like free radicals involving lipids. Free radicals are atoms which contain unpaired electrons they are able to exist independently and are highly reactive, due to this free radicals can start chain reactions causing damage to cellular components, DNA or cell membrane which can contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease or cancer. When vitamin E has been excreted into the bloodstream by plasma lipoproteins and erythrocytes the chylomicrons transport alpha-tocopherol from enterocyte to the liver. Serum concentrations of vitamin E depend on the liver, which absorbs the essential nutrients of alpha-tocopherol from the small intestine. However recognition of Vitamin E antioxidant have been associated with reducing the risk of many diseases such as, cancer, atherosclerosis and chronic inflammation, having being provided with an adequate dose of vitamin E.Excessive use of vitamin E also have some adverse effects.These are nausea associated with diarrhea, patient may also suffer from cramp of stomach, gaining excessive body weight. Weakness followed by depression; blurred vision and rash will also included in the adverse effect for intake of vitamin E in excessive amount especially prolong period of time (Sun, 2010).

Coronary heart diseases mainly are a build-up of fibrous and fatty materials within the arteries; the atheroma starts to accumulate within the lining of the artery wall causing inflammation. If the arteries are unable to repair the tissue creating a seal of fibrous material over the fatty core, eventually the fatty material will form into plaque. The process continues more atheroma accumulates which results in inflammation and increasing plaque formation narrowing the arteries, this is an underlying condition of Coronary Heart Disease (Trepanowski, 2010).Inflammation may develope in a lesion formation, inflammatory mediators and cytokines stimulate migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells of the vascular deposition of extracellular matrix molecules, elastin and collagen produces the expansion. If there is abnormality in  fibrous cap this can effect in a rupture resulting in underlying thrombogenic tissues, from these actions the plaque can continue to form atherosclerotic lesions inducing the thrombus formation which realises the inflammatory receptors increasing the growth narrow spacing in lumina (Turker,2010). The main cause of the low risk of getting attack of coronary heart disease upon the application of vitamin E is that, the anti-oxidant property of vitamin E prevents the oxidative modification caused by lipoprotein with low-density as well as cholesterol. And this low oxidation helps to decrease the amount of lipoprotein or cholesterol uptake which later accumulates in the artery lumen. In the perspective of coronary heart diseases management plan, various observational study suggest that those who are administered optimum amount of anti-oxidant in the form of vitamin E ,have greater chance to prevent the abnormalities relating to circulatory system (Wallace,2011). After the various clinical study on various heart diseases and application of vitamin E researchers also suggested that balance diet intake, mainly focusing on the fruits and diet as well as green vegetables which are the rich sources of anti-oxidants especially in the form of vitamin E. Anti-oxidant in the form of Vitamin E is present in membranes and lipoprotients which can prevent chain reactions such as free radicals involving lipids. In the mechanism of action of anti-oxidants in the management of coronary heart diseases, and here free radicals are important factor, which contain unpaired electrons they are able to exist independently and are highly reactive (Zivkovic, 2011).

Conclusion:

After the above discussion about the Prevention of coronary heart disease in the perspective of vitamin E and its effects it can be concluded that with the various effective and relevant medicine of various especially coronary heart diseases anti-oxidants in the form of vitamin E is also very significant. As the Coronary heart diseases are affects the artery which consists of fibrous and fatty materials within the arteries; and in the mean time thermo starts to consume within the lining of the artery wall causing inflammation. If the arteries are unable to repair the tissue creating a seal of fibrous material over the fatty core, eventually the fatty material transform into plaque and it vitamin E prevents the oxidative modification caused by lipoprotein with low-density as well as cholesterol. Another important element is health literacy which is the basic platform of understanding and application of various management strategies which has to conduct by patient himself. It  degree of understanding  by which an individual  can able to identify and analyses the primary health information and can prepare for the further appropriate step influencing the overall management plan of diabetes in the perspective of self-awareness.

 

References

Basson, C. and Lerman, B. (2010). Topics in structural heart disease. New York: Demos Medical Pub.

First International Congress of Translational Research in Human Nutrition March 19–20, 2010 Polydome, Clermont-Ferrand, France. (2010). The journal of nutrition, health & aging, 14(3), pp.244-256.

Guo, X., Liu, J. and Li, H. (2010). e0277 Use of traditional Chinese medicine preparations in outpatients with coronary heart disease in China and its influence on the use of guideline-recommended therapies: Results from the Bridging the Gap on CHD Secondary Prevention in China (BRIG) Project. Heart, 96(Suppl 3), pp.A87-A87.

Hill, A. (2010). Research handbook for health care professionals. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 23(4), pp.429-430.

Hosseini, E., Grootaert, C., Verstraete, W. and Van de Wiele, T. (2011). Propionate as a health-promoting microbial metabolite in the human gut. Nutrition Reviews, 69(5), pp.245-258.

J. Majima, H., P. Indo, H., Suenaga, S., Matsui, H., Yen, H. and Ozawa, T. (2011). Mitochondria as Possible Pharmaceutical Targets for the Effects of Vitamin E and its Homologues in Oxidative Stress-Related Diseases. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 17(21), pp.2190-2195.

Maas, A. and Appelman, Y. (2010). Gender differences in coronary heart disease. Netherlands Heart Journal, 18(12), pp.598-603.

Nikkhah, A. (2011). Science of Camel and Yak Milks: Human Nutrition and Health Perspectives. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 02(06), pp.667-673.

Norval, M. (2014). A Short Circular History of Vitamin D from its Discovery to its Effects. Res Medica, 268(2).

Raukas, M., Rebane, R., Mahlapuu, R., Jefremov, V., Zilmer, K., Karelson, E., Bogdanovic, N. and Zilmer, M. (2012). Mitochondrial oxidative stress index, activity of redox-sensitive aconitase and effects of endogenous anti- and pro-oxidants on its activity in control, Alzheimer's disease and Swedish Familial Alzheimer's disease brain. Free Radical Research, 46(12), pp.1490-1495.

Schaefer, E. (2010). High density lipoproteins, dyslipidemia, and coronary heart disease. New York: Springer.

Sun, L. and Lu, S. (2010). e0328 Coronary artery calcification may predict coronary heart disease in women patients. Heart, 96(Suppl 3), pp.A102-A102.

Trepanowski, J. and Bloomer, R. (2010). The impact of religious fasting on human health. Nutr J, 9(1), p.57.

Turker, Y., Ozaydin, M. and Yucel, H. (2010). Heart rate variability and heart rate recovery in patients with coronary artery ectasia. Coronary Artery Disease, 21(1), pp.8-12.

Wallace, T., Guarner, F., Madsen, K., Cabana, M., Gibson, G., Hentges, E. and Sanders, M. (2011). Human gut microbiota and its relationship to health and disease. Nutrition Reviews, 69(7), pp.392-403.

Zivkovic, A. and Barile, D. (2011). Bovine Milk as a Source of Functional Oligosaccharides for Improving Human Health. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 2(3), pp.284-289.

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