country
$20 Bonus + 25% OFF
Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!

WACS100-Air Quality On Residents Living Near Tunnel Emission Stacks

tag 0 Download7 Pages / 1,514 Words tag Add in library Click this icon and make it bookmark in your library to refer it later. GOT IT
  • Course Code: WACS100
  • University: Macquarie University
  • Country: Australia

Question

The purpose of a Research Report is to inform your audience about research that you have conducted and to discuss the results you have found. Academic research aims to develop our existing knowledge, so your Research Report should highlight the current understanding of the subject by reviewing other studies. Your Research Report will then present your findings. Your Research Report will conclude by examining the significance of your findings and their relationship to the findings of other research already conducted. Your Research Report will also discuss the limitations of your study and give suggestions for further research.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction 

Air pollution from vehicle exhausts is among the main contributors to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases globally. Human contact with vehicle exhausts occurs to pedestrians walking along the roads as well as the drivers and commuters in the vehicles on the road. This contact is more for people who live or work in areas that are continuously exposed to vehicle exhausts. These areas include residential and work places with close proximity to the roads and tunnel emission stacks for road tunnels.

The congestion of roads has necessitated innovations in the transport sector. Among these innovations is the construction of road tunnels underground. Similar to when vehicles use surface road, in the road tunnels the vehicles also produce exhaust fumes. In order to ensure good air quality in the road tunnels, stacks are constructed to ventilate the tunnels. The stacks connect the tunnels to the surface, allowing for the escape of the vehicle emissions into the atmosphere.

The road tunnels are exposed to risks such as water inrush. This is the sudden flooding of water into the road tunnels (Li, et al., 2016). The construction specifications for the tunnels are the biggest factors in determining whether it is going to be exposed to incidents such as water inrush. The construction of the tunnels should be done in a manner that enables it to handle any hazardous event (Bubbico, et al., 2009 ).  

The tunnel emission stacks pose a health risk due to the resultant air pollution. This is especially during traffic jams, when the pollution levels are at their highest (Bari & Naser, 2010). Other than the health risks that may range from persistent coughs to lung cancer, the environment is also affected. The environment around the tunnel emission stacks changes, and with continuous emissions it becomes characterised by reduced animal and plant life (AECOM Australia Pty Ltd, 2014).

Numerous research works such as (Cowie, et al., 2012) have been done to investigate the effects that the air quality resulting from the emissions from the tunnel emission stacks has on the communities living near them. This research paper builds on this to provide a more detailed comparative analysis to determine the extent of the effects of the air quality on communities living near tunnel emission stacks.

Research Results  

The results for the research are presented in table 1 and table 2 below:

 

Table 1

Table 2

Nature of Data

The research was carried out during the three-year period between 2006 and 2008. The data was collected from a total of 3358 individuals. 2978 individuals contributed to information in table 1, while the remaining 380 contributed to information in table 2.

The research presented data from four different zones. The four zones had differing exposures to the tunnel emissions, this allowed for effective comparison to determine impacts of the air quality resulting from the presence of the tunnel emission stacks.

The four zones were:

  1. Reduced Exposure Zone.
  2. Increased Exposure Zone.
  3. Eastern Stack Zone.
  4. Control Zone.

For the information presented in table 1, the demographics and symptoms of the respondents were recorded. This information was collected on the following variables for each of the four zones of study during the three-year period:

  1. Age 
  2. Gender
  3. Asthma Diagnosis.
  4. Current Asthma Prevalence.
  5. Instances of inhaled corticosteroids.
  6. Wheeze Prevalence.
  7. Cough Prevalence.
  8. Uptake of asthma medication.
  9. Instances of Upper Respiratory Symptoms.
  10. Instances of Lower Respiratory Symptoms.
  11. Instances of severe Lower Respiratory Symptoms.
  12. Instances of Mouth Symptoms.
  13. The Rate of Smoking.
  14. Home Environment Factors such as;
  15. Usage of Unflued Gas Heater.
  16. Usage of Gas Cooktop or Oven.
  17. ETS at Home.
  18. Educational status (Tertiary Educated, High School/Diploma and Up to Middle School).
  19. Work Status (Paid Work or not).

For the information presented in table 2, responses were recorded for the frequency of the occurrence of symptoms among the respondents. This information was collected on the following variables for each of the four zones of study during the three-year period:

  1. Number of days during which symptoms were present.
  2. Frequency of day-time symptoms.
  3. Frequency of night-time symptoms.
  4. Number of days during which respondent experienced wheezing.
  5. Number of days during which respondent experienced coughing.
  6. Number of days during which respondent used bronchodilator.
  7. Number of days during which upper respiratory symptoms were present.

For the instances where data was not available, such as when the respondent was unwilling to respond to a question(s), the missing entry was considered into the nearest most likely response.

Research Findings And Discussion

Generally, there was a decrease in the number of respondents in the study across all the four zones over the three-year period. This true for both the demographics and symptoms subset in table 1 and the subgroups subset in table 2.

The number of respondents aged 18 years and above also decreased for three of the zones with the exception of the Control Zone where the number was unchanged at 72%. The number of female respondents on the other hand had an overall increase across the four zones in the three-year period.

Reduced Exposure Zone

From the first dataset in tables 1, the Diagnosed Asthma, Current Asthma and the Lower Respiratory Symptoms in the reduced exposure rose from 2006 to 2007 and thereafter remained unchanged. The rises were from 18% - 20%, 11% - 13% and 39% - 47% respectively.  

There is a consistent increase in the Inhalation of Corticosteroids and in the use of Asthma Medication. Also, the Cough, Severe Lower Respiratory Symptoms and Mouth Symptoms also consistently increase over the three-year period.

The Wheeze and the Upper Respiratory Symptoms both rise from 2006 to 2007, then drop in 2008.

From the second dataset in table 2, the number of symptom days and the frequency of the night-time symptoms generally decrease form 2006 – 2007. However, the day-time symptoms, Wheeze, Bronchodilator Use, Cough and Upper Respiratory Symptoms fall from 2006 to 2007, then rise in 2018. 

 

Increased Exposure Zone

From the first dataset in table 1, the Asthma Medication and Mouth Symptoms rise from 2006 – 2007 then remained unchanged. The rises were from 11% - 14% and 9% - 21% respectively.

The Diagnosed Asthma, Current Asthma, Wheeze, Cough, Lower Respiratory Symptoms, Severe Lower Respiratory Symptoms and Inhaled Corticosteroids rise from 2006 to 2007 then fall again in 2008. The Upper Respiratory Symptoms was the only variable that had a consistent rise.

From the second dataset in table 2, all the data variables indicate a fall from 2006-2007, then followed by a rise in 2018.

Eastern Stack Zone

From the first dataset in table 1, the Current Asthma increases from 9% in 2006 to 12% in 2007, thereafter remains unchanged for 2008.

The Diagnosed Asthma, Cough and Lower Respiratory Symptoms increase consistently from 2006 to 2008.

The Wheeze, Asthma Medication, Inhaled Corticosteroids, Severe Lower Respiratory Symptoms, Upper Respiratory Symptom and Mouth Symptoms exhibit a rise from 2006 to 2007, then fall in 2008.

From the second dataset in table 2, the Wheeze and the Upper Respiratory Symptoms consistently rise from 2006 to 2018. The Day-time Symptoms on the other hand consistently decrease from 2006 to 2018. However, the trends for Symptoms, Night-time Symptoms, Bronchodilator and Cough have undefinable trends.    

Control Zone

From the first dataset in table 1, the Wheeze and the Lower Respiratory Symptoms rise from 2006 to 2007, then remain unchanged in 2008. The increases were from 10% to 13% and 33% to 43% respectively. On the other hand, Inhaled Corticosteroids remain unchanged from 2006 to 2007, but rises from the initial 5% to 7% in 2008.

The Diagnosed Asthma, Asthma Medication, Cough, Severe Lower Respiratory Symptoms and Mouth Symptoms consistently rise from 2006 to 2008.

The Current Asthma and the Upper Respiratory Symptoms rise from 2006 to 2007, then fall in 2008.

From the second dataset in table 2, the Upper Respiratory Symptoms consistently rise from 2006 to 2008.  On the other hand, the Wheeze consistently decrease over the same period.

The Bronchodilator Use rises from 2006 to 2007, then falls in 2008. The Symptoms, Night-Symptoms, Day-Symptoms and Cough fall from 2006 to 2007, then rises in 2008.

Conclusion

This research finds more occurrences of the symptoms are present among the respondents in the Increased Exposure and the Eastern Stack Zones. The comparison between the percentage of symptoms among individuals in the Reduced Exposure and Control Exposure Zones reveal that the mitigation measures have not reduced occurrence of symptoms in the Reduced Exposure Zone to the level of the Control Exposure Zone. We hence conclude that the tunnel emission stacks pose a health risk to individuals living around them. Also, we conclude that the mitigation measures put in place have made very little difference, thus better measures should be put in place.

Further research should focus on collection of more data to increase the accuracy of the findings, preferably over a longer period of time. The short time period presents a constraint in carrying out efficient and reliable analysis. 

 

References

AECOM Australia Pty Ltd, 2014. Environmental Impact Statement Section 2.4-2.7 pp. 51-59, Sydney: NorthConnex Submissions and preferred infrastructure report.

Bari, S. & Naser, J., 2010. Simulation of Airflow and Pollution Levels Caused by Severe Traffic Jam in a Road Tunnel. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology , 25(1), pp. 70-77.

Bubbico, R., Di Cave, S., Mazzarotta, B. & Silvetti, B., 2009 . Preliminary Study on the Transport of Hazardous Materials Through Tunnels. Accidents Analysis and Prevention, 41(6), pp. 1199-1205.

Cowie, C. T. et al., 2012. Respiratory Health Before and After Opening of a Raod Traffic Tunnel: A Planned Evaluation. PLoS ONE, 7(11).

Li, L. et al., 2016. Mechanism of Water Inrush in Tunnel Construction in Karst Area. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risks, 7(1), pp. 35-46.

Download Sample

Get 100% money back after download, simply upload your unique content* of similar no. of pages or more. We verify your content and once successfully verified 100% value credited to your wallet within 7 days.

Upload Unique Document

Document Under Evaluation

Get Credits into Your Wallet

*The content must not be available online or in our existing Database to qualify as unique.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2019). Air Quality On Residents Living Near Tunnel Emission Stacks. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/wacs100-air-quality-on-residents-living-near-tunnel-emission-stacks.

"Air Quality On Residents Living Near Tunnel Emission Stacks." My Assignment Help, 2019, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/wacs100-air-quality-on-residents-living-near-tunnel-emission-stacks.

My Assignment Help (2019) Air Quality On Residents Living Near Tunnel Emission Stacks [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/wacs100-air-quality-on-residents-living-near-tunnel-emission-stacks
[Accessed 15 August 2020].

My Assignment Help. 'Air Quality On Residents Living Near Tunnel Emission Stacks' (My Assignment Help, 2019) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/wacs100-air-quality-on-residents-living-near-tunnel-emission-stacks> accessed 15 August 2020.

My Assignment Help. Air Quality On Residents Living Near Tunnel Emission Stacks [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2019 [cited 15 August 2020]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/wacs100-air-quality-on-residents-living-near-tunnel-emission-stacks.


If you are having trouble on how to write an annotated bibliography, you are better off at the hands of qualified experts. At MyAssignmenthelp.com, we have over 5000 experts at your service to deliver dynamic content. Incorrect citations and validations reduce the authenticity of the material. Thus, the bibliography needs to be 100% accurate. Our experts are proficient in their services and are aware of the annotated bibliography format. This helps in raising the prospect of you garnering more marks. Authentic Annotated bibliography can also be achieved through our online reference generator like the Harvard bibliography generator.

Latest Statistics Samples

MM255 Business Math And Statistical Measures

Download : 0 | Pages : 3
  • Course Code: MM255
  • University: Kaplan Business School
  • Country: United States

Answers: 1: The idea is to grow Vinyl Fence Company in future by acquiring a new warehouse facility for accomplishing the objectives. The insurance company had suggested to choices of investments that are attractive that is an annuity that is due and an ordinary annuity. This compounded on a semiannual basis and compensates an interest of 5% on annual basis for the period of 5 years. The 5-year budget will integrate a savings amount till $ 26...

Read More arrow Tags: United States Apo 34 Business Math and Statisical Measures Other 

NIT6130 Introduction To Research 3

Download : 0 | Pages : 6
  • Course Code: NIT6130
  • University: Victoria University
  • Country: Australia

Answer: Project Summary Objectives The main objective of this project is to determine the intensity of credit card anomalies and provide possible solutions on the same. The project will gather data from members of the public and then analyze it to determine the best course as part of the solution. Methods The data collection methods will be questionnaires, and both online and telephone interviews. Both the questionnaires and the interviews...

Read More arrow Tags: Australia Sydney 18 Introduction to Reserch Victoria University 

STAT6000 Statistics For Public Health

Download : 0 | Pages : 3
  • Course Code: STAT6000
  • University: Laureate International Universities
  • Country: United States

Answer: Part 1 Population data generally refers to indicators of different information related to a population such as, death, birth, migration, sex, age, religion, literacy, occupation, language, and marital status. Such population data facilitates the formulation and implementation of different policies and plans in a particular community, state or nation. Possible sources of population data will be census, vital registration and popul...

Read More arrow Tags: Australia Brisbane 42 Statistics for Public Health Laureate International Universities 

QAC020N255A Big Data Analytics

Download : 0 | Pages : 11
  • Course Code: QAC020N255A
  • University: University Of Roehampton
  • Country: United Kingdom

Answer: Data warehouse For collecting and managing data from various sources to provide some meaningful information to business is known as data warehousing. Mainly it is the process of gathering data and transform that data into meaningful information and making it available to different users or client timely. The data warehouse is the core of the BI system which is built for data analysis and reporting. With respect to the dataset, data&r...

Read More arrow Tags: United Kingdom 18 Big Data Other 

SOWK610 Evaluation Research Of Urban Social Problems Services & Interventions

Download : 0 | Pages : 6
  • Course Code: SOWK610
  • University: Morgan State University
  • Country: United States

Answer: Critical Analysis of A Journal Article: Introduction Identifying Homelessness among Veterans Using VA Administrative Data: Opportunities to Expand Detection Criteria By Rachel Peterson, Adi V. Gundlapalli, Stephen Metraux, Marjorie E. Carter, Miland Palmer, Andrew Redd, Matthew H. Samore, and Jamison D. Fargo Journal PLoS ONE (published by Public Library of Science) Identify the “aim of the study” The aim of this stu...

Read More arrow Tags: United States Baltimore 18 critical analysis Other 
Next
watch

Save Time & improve Grade

Just share Requriment and get customize Solution.

question
We will use e-mail only for:

arrow Communication regarding your orders

arrow To send you invoices, and other billing info

arrow To provide you with information of offers and other benefits

1,386,698

Orders

4.9/5

Overall Rating

5,086

Experts

Our Amazing Features

delivery

On Time Delivery

Our writers make sure that all orders are submitted, prior to the deadline.

work

Plagiarism Free Work

Using reliable plagiarism detection software, Turnitin.com.We only provide customized 100 percent original papers.

time

24 X 7 Live Help

Feel free to contact our assignment writing services any time via phone, email or live chat.

subject

Services For All Subjects

Our writers can provide you professional writing assistance on any subject at any level.

price

Best Price Guarantee

Our best price guarantee ensures that the features we offer cannot be matched by any of the competitors.

Our Experts

Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

203 Order Completed

97% Response Time

Richard Alpert

PhD in Psychology

London, United Kingdom

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

610 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Cheryl Zhao

PhD in Statistics

Singapore, Singapore

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 4/5

2594 Order Completed

95% Response Time

Michael Johnson

Masters of MSc in Economics

Washington, United States

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

1265 Order Completed

97% Response Time

James Cook

Masters in Management

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me

FREE Tools

plagiarism

Plagiarism Checker

Get all your documents checked for plagiarism or duplicacy with us.

essay

Essay Typer

Get different kinds of essays typed in minutes with clicks.

edit

GPA Calculator

Calculate your semester grades and cumulative GPa with our GPA Calculator.

referencing

Chemical Equation Balancer

Balance any chemical equation in minutes just by entering the formula.

calculator

Word Counter & Page Calculator

Calculate the number of words and number of pages of all your academic documents.

Refer Just 5 Friends to Earn More than $2000

Check your estimated earning as per your ability

1

1

1

Your Approx Earning

Live Review

Our Mission Client Satisfaction

Awesome work. Awesome response time. Very thorough & clear. Love the results I get with MAH!

flag

User Id: 383727 - 31 Jul 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Work was done in a timely manner took it through grammarly checked for plagiarism very well satisfied

flag

User Id: 463334 - 31 Jul 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Great work for the short notice given. Thank you for never disappointing and helping out.

flag

User Id: 194216 - 31 Jul 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

I received a full point on the assignment. Thank you for all the help with the assignment.

flag

User Id: 411395 - 31 Jul 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating
callback request mobile
Have any Query?